Biotechnology innovation. Overview.

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Biotechnology innovation. Overview.

Author: Member of the European Academy of Natural Sciences (academician), Professor, Ph.D. Animal Science.
Alexander Zabuty, Israel.

Innovations in biotechnology in Israel, USA, China, EU on the examples of Germany and Italy, Russia, CIS and other countries
Resume: The article is devoted to innovative processes in biotechnology in the most advanced countries in this direction.
Key words: innovation, biotechnology today, progress, reasons, prospects
Definition of biotechnology.
Biotechnology is a discipline that studies the possibilities of using living organisms, their systems or products of their vital activity to solve technological problems, as well as the possibility of creating living organisms with the necessary properties by the method of genetic engineering.
Biotechnology is often referred to as the application of genetic engineering in the 20th and 21st centuries, but the term also refers to a wider range of processes for modifying biological organisms to meet human needs, starting with the modification of plants and animals through artificial selection and hybridization. With the help of modern methods, traditional biotechnological industries were able to improve the quality of food products and increase the productivity of living organisms.
Until 1971, the term «biotechnology» was used mainly in the food industry and agriculture. Since 1970, scientists have used the term to refer to laboratory techniques such as the use of recombinant DNA and in vitro cultured cells.
Biotechnology is based on genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, embryology and cell biology, as well as applied disciplines such as chemical and information technology and robotics.
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Types of biotechnology
Bioengineering
Bioengineering (or biomedical engineering) is a discipline aimed at deepening knowledge in the field of engineering, biology and medicine and promoting human health through interdisciplinary developments that combine engineering approaches with advances in biomedical science and clinical practice. Bioengineering / biomedical engineering is the application of technical approaches to solve medical problems in order to improve health. This engineering discipline seeks to use knowledge and experience to find and solve problems in biology and medicine. Bioengineers work for the benefit of humanity, deal with living systems and apply advanced technology to solve medical problems. Biomedical engineering specialists can participate in the creation of devices and equipment, in the development of new procedures based on interdisciplinary knowledge, in research aimed at obtaining new information to solve new problems. Among the important advances in bioengineering, we can mention the development of artificial joints, magnetic resonance imaging, pacemakers, arthroscopy, angioplasty, bioengineered skin prostheses, renal dialysis, and heart-lung machines. Also, one of the main directions of bioengineering research is the use of computer modeling methods to create proteins with new properties, as well as modeling the interaction of various compounds with cell receptors in order to develop new pharmaceutical preparations («drug design»).
Biomedicine
A branch of medicine that studies from a theoretical standpoint the human body, its structure and function in health and disease, pathological conditions, methods of their diagnosis, correction and treatment. Biomedicine includes accumulated information and research, more or less general medicine, veterinary medicine, dentistry and basic biological sciences, such as chemistry, biological chemistry, biology, histology, genetics, embryology, anatomy, physiology, pathology, biomedical engineering, zoology, botany and microbiology.

Nano-medicine
Computer image of insulin
Tracking, correcting, designing and controlling human biological systems at the molecular level using nanodevices and nanostructures [6]. A number of technologies for the nanomedical industry have already been created in the world. These include targeted drug delivery to diseased cells [7], laboratories on a chip, new bactericidal agents.

Biopharmacology
A branch of pharmacology that studies the physiological effects produced by substances of biological and biotechnological origin. In fact, biopharmacology is the fruit of the convergence of two traditional sciences — biotechnology, namely, its branch, which is called «red», medical biotechnology, and pharmacology, previously interested only in low molecular weight chemicals, as a result of mutual interest.
Objects of biopharmacological research — the study of biopharmaceuticals, planning their production, organization of production. Biopharmacological remedies and means for the prevention of diseases are obtained using living biological systems, tissues of organisms and their derivatives, using means of biotechnology, that is, medicinal substances of biological and biotechnological origin.

Bioinformatics
A set of methods and approaches, including:
mathematical methods of computer analysis in comparative genomics (genomic bioinformatics);
development of algorithms and programs for predicting the spatial structure of proteins (structural bioinformatics);
research strategies, appropriate computational methodologies; and general management of the information complexity of biological systems.
Bioinformatics uses the methods of applied mathematics, statistics and informatics. Bioinformatics is used in biochemistry, biophysics, ecology and other fields.

Sequence alignment
A bioinformatic method based on placing two or more sequences of monomers of DNA, RNA or proteins one under the other in such a way that it is easy to see similar regions in these sequences. The similarity in the primary structures of two molecules may reflect their functional, structural, or evolutionary relationships. Sequence alignment algorithms are also used in NLP.

Bionics
Applied science about the application in technical devices and systems of the principles of organization, properties, functions and structures of living nature, that is, forms of living things in nature and their industrial analogues. Simply put, bionics is a combination of biology and technology. Bionics examines biology and technology from a completely new perspective, explaining what common features and what differences exist in nature and technology.

Distinguish:
biological bionics, which studies the processes occurring in biological systems;
theoretical bionics, which builds mathematical models of these processes;
technical bionics, which uses theoretical bionics models to solve engineering problems.
Bionics is closely related to biology, physics, chemistry, cybernetics and engineering: electronics, navigation, communications, maritime affairs and others.

Bioremediation
A complex of methods for water, soil and atmosphere purification using the metabolic potential of biological objects — plants, fungi, insects, worms and other organisms.

Artificial selection
Selective admission to the reproduction of animals, plants or other organisms for the purpose of developing new varieties and breeds. The predecessor and main method of modern breeding. Artificial selection results in a variety of plant varieties and animal breeds.

Cloning
Appearance naturally or obtaining several genetically identical organisms by asexual (including vegetative) reproduction. The term «cloning» in the same sense is often used in relation to the cells of multicellular organisms. Cloning is also called the production of several identical copies of hereditary molecules (molecular cloning). Finally, cloning is also often referred to as biotechnological methods used to artificially obtain clones of organisms, cells or molecules. A group of genetically identical organisms or cells is a clone.
Human cloning
The predicted methodology, which consists in the creation of an embryo and the subsequent cultivation from the embryo of people with the genotype of one or another individual, now existing or previously existing. The technology of human cloning has not yet been developed. Currently, not a single case of human cloning has been reliably recorded. And here a number of both theoretical and technical questions arise. However, today there are methods that allow us to say with a high degree of confidence that the main issue of technology has been resolved. Concerns are raised by such moments as the high rate of cloning failures and the associated potential for inferior people. As well as questions of paternity, motherhood, inheritance, marriage and many others. From the point of view of the main world religions (Christianity, Islam, Judaism), human cloning is either a problematic act, or an act that goes beyond the doctrine and requires theologians to clearly substantiate one or another position of religious hierarchs. In some states, the use of these technologies in relation to humans is officially prohibited — France, Germany, Japan. These prohibitions, however, do not mean the intention of the legislators of these states to refrain from using human cloning in the future, after a detailed study of the molecular mechanisms of interaction between the cytoplasm of the recipient oocyte and the nucleus of the somatic donor cell, as well as the improvement of the cloning technique itself.
Educational biotechnology
Educational biotechnology is used to spread biotechnology and train personnel in this area. It develops interdisciplinary materials and educational strategies related to biotechnology (for example, the production of recombinant protein) available to the whole society, including people with special needs, such as hearing impairment and / or visual impairment.

Hybridization
The process of forming or obtaining hybrids, which is based on the unification of the genetic material of different cells in one cell. It can be carried out within the same species (intraspecific hybridization) and between different taxonomic groups (distant hybridization, in which different genomes are combined). For the first generation of hybrids, heterosis is often characteristic, expressed in better adaptability, greater fertility and vitality of organisms. With distant hybridization, hybrids are often sterile.

Genetic Engineering
Substrates for obtaining unicellular protein for different classes of microorganisms
Despite the fact that the first successful experiments on the transformation of cells with exogenous DNA were performed back in the 1940s by Avery, McLeod and McCarthy, the first commercial preparation of human recombinant insulin was obtained in the early 1980s or 1982. The introduction of genes alien to the genome of bacterial cells is carried out using the so-called. vector DNA, for example plasmids present in bacterial cells, as well as bacteriophages and other mobile genetic elements can be used as vectors for transferring exogenous DNA into a recipient cell.

You can get a new gene:
By cutting it out of the host’s genomic DNA using a restriction endonuclease, which catalyzes the rupture of phosphodiester bonds between certain nitrogenous bases in DNA at sites with a certain nucleotide sequence;
Chemical-enzymatic synthesis;
By the synthesis of cDNA based on the messenger RNA isolated from the cell using the enzymes revertase and DNA polymerase, a gene is isolated that does not contain insignificant sequences and can be expressed provided that a suitable promoter sequence is selected in prokaryotic systems without subsequent modifications, which is most often necessary when transforming prokaryotic systems by eukaryotic genes containing introns and exons.
After that, the vector DNA molecule is treated with a restriction enzyme in order to form a double-stranded break and the gene is “glued” into the vector using the DNA ligase enzyme into the resulting “gap”, and then the recipient cells, for example, E. coli cells, are transformed with such recombinant molecules. When transforming using, for example, plasmid DNA as a vector, it is necessary that the cells are competent for the penetration of exogenous DNA into the cell, for which, for example, electroporation of the recipient cells is used. After successfully entering the cell, exogenous DNA begins to replicate and be expressed in the cell.

Transgenic plants
Transgenic plants are those plants that have been «transplanted» with the genes of other organisms.
Potato resistant to the Colorado potato beetle was created by introducing a gene isolated from the genome of the soil Thuringian bacillus Bacillus thuringiensis, which produces the Cry protein, which is a protoxin; in the intestines of insects, this protein dissolves and is activated to a true toxin that has a detrimental effect on insect larvae and imago. in humans and other warm-blooded animals, such a transformation of protoxin is impossible and, accordingly, this protein is non-toxic and safe for humans. Spraying with Bacillus thuringiensis spores was used for plant protection and before the first transgenic plant was obtained, but with low efficiency, the production of endotoxin inside plant tissues significantly increased the effectiveness of protection, as well as increased economic efficiency since the plant itself began to produce a protective protein. By transforming a potato plant with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, plants were obtained that synthesize this protein in the leaf mesophyll and other plant tissues and, accordingly, are not affected by the Colorado potato beetle. This approach is also used to create other agricultural plants resistant to various types of insects.

Transgenic animals
Pigs are most often used as transgenic animals. For example, there are pigs with human genes — they were bred as donors of human organs.
Japanese genetic engineers have introduced a spinach gene into the pig genome, which produces an enzyme called FAD2, which can convert saturated fatty acids into linoleic unsaturated fatty acid. Modified pigs have 1/5 more unsaturated fatty acids than conventional pigs.
Green glowing pigs are transgenic pigs bred by a team of researchers from the National Taiwan University by introducing into the embryo’s DNA the gene for a green fluorescent protein borrowed from the fluorescent jellyfish Aequorea victoria. The embryo was then implanted into the uterus of a female pig. Piglets glow green in the dark and have a greenish skin and eyes in daylight. The main purpose of breeding such pigs, according to the researchers, is the ability to visually observe the development of tissues during stem cell transplantation.

Moral aspect
Many modern religious leaders and some scientists warn the scientific community against excessive enthusiasm for such biotechnologies (in particular, biomedical technologies) as genetic engineering, cloning, and various methods of artificial reproduction (such as IVF).
A person in the face of the latest biomedical technologies, article by V.N.Filyanova, senior researcher at RISS:
The problem of biotechnology is only part of the problem of scientific technology, which is rooted in the orientation of the European man to transform the world, to conquer nature, which began in the era of modern times.
Biotechnologies, which have been rapidly developing in recent decades, at first glance, bring a person closer to realizing an old dream of overcoming diseases, eliminating physical problems, and achieving earthly immortality through human experience. But on the other hand, they give rise to completely new and unexpected problems, which are not limited only to the consequences of long-term use of genetically modified foods, the deterioration of the human gene pool in connection with the birth of a mass of people born only thanks to the intervention of doctors and the latest technologies. In the future, the problem of transformation of social structures arises, the specter of «medical fascism» and eugenics, convicted at the Nuremberg trials, is resurrected.
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Innovation — an introduced or being introduced innovation that provides an increase in the efficiency of processes and (or) an improvement in product quality, demanded by the market. At the same time, for its implementation, an innovation must meet current socio-economic and cultural needs. An example of innovation is the introduction to the market of products (goods and services) with new consumer properties or an increase in the efficiency of production of a particular product.
Innovation is a new or significantly improved product (product, service) or process, a new sales method or a new organizational method in business practice, workplace organization or in external relations.
The term “innovation” comes from the Latin “novatio”, which means “update” (or “change”), and the prefix “in”, which translates from Latin as “in the direction”, if translated literally “Innovatio” — “in the direction of change «. The very concept of innovation first appeared in scientific research in the 19th century. The concept of «innovation» got a new life at the beginning of the XX century in the scientific works of the Austrian and American economist J. Schumpeter as a result of the analysis of «innovative combinations», changes in the development of economic systems. Schumpeter was one of the first scientists who, in the 1900s. introduced this term into scientific use in economics.
An innovation is not just any innovation or innovation, but only one that significantly increases the efficiency of the current system. Contrary to popular belief, innovation is different from invention.
Innovation is the result of investing an intellectual solution in the development and acquisition of new knowledge, a previously unused idea of updating the spheres of human life (technology; products; organizational forms of society’s existence, such as education, management, labor organization, service, science, informatization, etc.) .) and the subsequent process of implementation (production) of this, with a fixed receipt of additional value (profit, anticipation, leadership, priority, fundamental improvement, quality superiority, creativity, progress).
Thus, a process is needed: investment — development — implementation process — obtaining a quality improvement.
Innovation refers to both radical and gradual (incremental) changes in products, processes, and organizational strategy (innovation). Proceeding from the fact that the purpose of innovations is to increase the efficiency, economy, quality of life, satisfaction of the organization’s customers, the concept of innovation can be equated with the concept of entrepreneurship — vigilance towards new opportunities to improve the work of an organization (commercial, government, charitable, moral and ethical).

An innovation is a process or result of a process in which:
partially or completely protectable results of intellectual activity are used; and / or
the release of patentable products is ensured; and / or
the release of goods and / or services is ensured, in terms of their quality corresponding to the world level or exceeding it;
high economic efficiency is achieved in the production or consumption of the product.
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And what about Israel?
The world’s smallest DNA computer
In 2002, researchers at the Weizmann Institute in Rehovot unveiled a programmable molecular computer consisting of enzymes and DNA molecules instead of the usual silicon microchips. On April 28, 2004, Ehud Shapiro, Yaakov Benenson, Benjamin Gil, Uri Ben-Dor, and Rivka Adar announced in Nature that they have built a DNA computer with an I / O module that is theoretically capable of diagnosing cancers at the cellular level. and release anti-cancer drugs after diagnosis. This computer was listed in the Guinness Book of Records as the smallest biological computing device on the planet.
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Umoove — eye control
Israeli startup Umoove has created an innovative platform that allows you to interact with portable devices using head and pupil movements. The development uses exclusively software algorithms. The image from the front camera of a smartphone or tablet is analyzed in real time and converted into control commands, and all calculations require no more than 5% of the processor time. In addition to the standard models of using technology (smartphone control, gaming applications, etc.), Umoove emphasizes the wide application of its technology for the early diagnosis of a whole range of diseases.
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SCiO World’s First Pocket Molecular Sensor
Israeli startup Consumer Physics promises to revolutionize human-environmental interaction with SCiO. SCiO is a pocket size infrared spectrometer, the size of a regular USB stick, that works in tandem with a smartphone to determine the chemical composition of food, medicine, beverages, soil, plants, etc. The SCiO sensor emits near-infrared light, which is reflected from the surface of the product and acquires unique properties depending on the molecular composition of the substance. Having caught the reflected light, the spectrometer analyzes and transmits the data to the user’s smartphone. SCiO can be used for calorie determination of foods, drug identification, dehydration detection, and more.
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Medigus is the world’s smallest camcorder
The medical company Medigus specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), one of the most common chronic diseases in the Western world. For a unique miniature endoscope, Medigus has created the world’s smallest video camera with a diameter of 0.99 mm.
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ReWalk is an exoskeleton that allows people with lower limb paralysis to walk
The device, developed by a paralyzed Israeli scientist, has already featured in Time Magazine’s list of Best Invention of the Year and has been featured on the hit TV show Glee. Like an external skeleton or a bioelectronic suit, the ReWalk device uses special sensors to detect deviations in a person’s balance, and then transforms them into impulses that normalize his movements, which allows a person to walk or stand. ReWalk is already available in Europe and the United States.
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IceCure — tumor freezing procedure
The Israeli company IceCure is successfully mastering the treatment of breast tumors by freezing them. Scientists suggest using cold to freeze breast tumors. Freezing is performed by introducing a needle with liquid nitrogen into the neoplasm. Thus, the tumor is first frozen to -170 degrees, and after thawing it is no longer dangerous. The procedure does not even require the introduction of anesthetic. The whole procedure takes about 15 minutes. At the moment, to remove the tumor, a full-fledged operation must be performed, leaving scars and chaining the patient to a hospital bed for up to a week. Plus, the doctor now controls the volume of the frozen area obtained during cryoablation. According to company representatives, the maximum tumor size allowed is the size of a golf ball. By the way, you can treat not only benign breast tumors, but also tumors of the kidneys, prostate, and liver. Unlike heat exposure, freezing does not provoke pain (low temperature itself acts as an anesthetic) and is not so traumatic for the body. The technology has already been approved in the US and EU.
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OrCam — Google Glass for the blind
Israeli startup OrCam has created an analogue of Google Glass, designed for blind and visually impaired people. Thanks to these glasses, people with disabilities will be able to radically improve their quality of life. The system allows you to recognize and voice any text that occurs in everyday life: from signs to newspaper articles and from a bus number to a menu in a restaurant. All that is required from the user is to point the gadget to the object that needs to be rendered. After that, the built-in camera of the glasses scans the surrounding space in the direction indicated by the owner and recognizes the object. For example, when crossing a road, a visually impaired person can point to a traffic light, and OrCam will tell you what color it is on. And in a restaurant, the user just needs to slide his finger over the menu items, and the gadget will read them to him. The interaction of glasses with the user goes through the audio interface, just like in Google Glass. Namely, the sound is transmitted through the bones of the skull, which makes it completely inaudible to others and improves the sound quality. OrCam glasses are already in production. The recommended retail price of the product is $ 3500.
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Ola Mundo — World’s First Autistic Communication App
Ola Mundo (Spanish for “hello world”) is a mobile application that instantly transmits messages using symbols for people whose ability to speak and write is severely impaired. The technology was developed by Ofer Harel, an employee of an Israeli IT company who is also the father of a 10-year-old autistic child named Adam. After analyzing possible alternative therapies for his son, Ophir realized that there is simply no solution for children like Adam as they communicate primarily through the expression of emotions. Harel has developed an app that allows children and adults who cannot speak and write to communicate with the world around them through a new language made up of all symbols. The big advantage of Ola Mundo is that its use is independent of physical proximity, as the user of the application communicates via instant messaging.
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Babysense — baby breathing monitor
Babysense is the first «next generation» motion monitor. Created and patented in Israel in 1992, it has been on the international market since 1994. Babysense has successfully established itself around the world — according to experts, it is the most effective monitor in the fight against Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). All modifications available on the market today are the result of this innovative breakthrough. Babysense is the only home motion monitor registered in the EU as a medical device. The device consists of two touch panels located under the mattress in the baby’s crib and connected to a control unit, which, in turn, is fixed with a special bracket on the wall of the crib out of the baby’s reach. The monitor monitors the baby’s movements and breathing every second, giving parents an alarm in case of the slightest change in his movement, suspension or slowing of breathing. If for any reason the child stops breathing within 20 seconds or his breathing rate slows down to less than 10 movements per minute, an audible and visual alarm is triggered so that a parent or caregiver can help the child in time.
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Computer diagnostics of brain diseases.
One in three people suffer from diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, ADHD, chronic pain, and depression. Israel’s non-invasive BNA (brain network activation) technology for diagnosing brain diseases could revolutionize neurology. Patients sit at the computer for 15 to 30 minutes, performing a specific task many times, activating certain points in the brain, information about which is entered into the computer using a special device. The result is a three-dimensional image of the brain and nerve connections, and after processing it, one can judge whether the patient has a disease of the nervous system. Clinical trials have shown significant sensitivity and accuracy of the new Israeli system in the diagnosis and treatment of various brain diseases, and the medical system may even optimize drug dosage by observing changes in brain activity when the drug is administered during therapeutic treatment.
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IAIPT (IATI) The Israel Association for the Advanced Technology
Industry is Israel’s largest umbrella organization for high-tech bioindustries, bringing together companies, organizations and individuals in the biotechnology and high-tech sectors. In Israel, where the drive for innovation is part of the national mentality, IAIPT’s mission is to strengthen high-tech bio-based industries throughout the value chain and achieve global leadership in 15 innovative technologies. IAIPT endeavors to research, develop and implement the principles and methods of development of the Israeli advanced technology industry, disseminating information about its achievements and innovations around the world. This activity of the IAIPT creates a favorable environment for the development of high technologies, which allows Israeli companies to develop technical innovations, to establish production and delivery of socially useful products.
It is very important that Israel’s achievements in the field of innovative development attract the attention of not only entrepreneurs, foundations and bankers, but also politicians from different countries.
3) http://nizinew.co.il/nauka/tochnye-nauki/izrail-i-sistema-podderzhki-innovacij-na-vsex-etapax-razvitiya.html
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The use of marijuana in medicine.
Thousands of patients suffering from cancer, multiple sclerosis, Crohn’s disease and chronic pain receive marijuana as a medicine. Israeli work has inspired generations of research groups around the world to use marijuana to alleviate the problem of chemo-induced nausea with chronic pain.
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PrePex — circumcision without surgery
The World Health Organization has recommended for use a device developed by the Israeli startup company PrePex for performing circumcision of the foreskin in adult men without surgery. Eric Goosby, a spokesman for the American Presidential Program on AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), said the US government is ready to provide immediate assistance to any state wishing to purchase PrePex devices. The FDA approved the device in January 2012. To date, more than 12,000 circumcision procedures have been performed using an Israeli-developed device, including 2,000 procedures requested by the WHO. The company recently completed instrument testing in Rwanda, Zimbabwe and Uganda. The cost of the device for a mass purchase is about $ 20. The PrePex circumcision procedure is bloodless and does not require anesthesia or the presence of a doctor.
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RealView Imaging — medical 3D imaging technology
A revolution in medical imaging: the innovative RealView Imaging solution creates interactive 3D images from a Philips angiograph and cardiac ultrasound system in real time. Unlike traditional visualization of an organ on a monitor screen, this technology enables a cardiac surgeon, without special glasses, to examine in detail a 3D hologram of the heart «floating» in the air during a minimally invasive operation. Moreover, doctors can rotate 3D objects and perform other manipulations with a simple hand movement. According to experts, the testing of the new technology has great potential in cardiac surgery. Today, minimally invasive heart surgeries, such as opening clogged coronary arteries and replacing heart valves, require volumetric imaging: ultrasound provides accurate visualization of the anatomy of the soft tissue of the heart, and interventional X-ray provides the clearest picture of catheters and heart implants. 3D holograms will be the next step in the advancement of imaging in cardiac surgery, and the demand for this technology will continue to grow.
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EarlySense — patient monitoring system
EarlySense continually monitors critical patients and helps to reduce false alarms. A bundle of wires leading to monitors has been a lifesaver for many years when the heart rate or respiration changes too much. At the same time, sensitive devices often sound an alarm when the patient simply turns over, coughs or scratches. This happens so often that some nurses are already starting to ignore the cues, putting the patient in real danger. The Israeli company EarlySense has found an original way out. Instead of attaching numerous wires to the patient’s body, the engineers suggested placing a flat, iPad-sized sensor device under the mattress. It is sensitive enough to register the patient’s breathing, heart rate, and movement of the patient in bed. The practice of using EarlySense in American hospitals shows that the risk of false alarms is reduced several times.
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Notation of movements «Eshkol-Wakman»
In 1958, dance theorist Noah Eshkol and Technion professor of architecture Abraham Wackman introduced a system that analyzes movement in terms of the dynamics of body parts. «Dance writing» — the recording system and language of the «Eshkol-Wakman» movement — is still used not only in ballet groups, but by NASA scientists, architects, sculptures, researchers in many fields — from zoology to the sciences that study human behavior.
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Netafim — drip irrigation
The drip irrigation concept was developed by Israeli engineer Simha Blass, who found that slow and balanced irrigation significantly increased yields. He invented flexible piping that can be used to water where you need it most. In 1965, the Israeli company Netafim founded an entire industry on this technology. Modern drip irrigation systems are even more efficient. Thanks to advanced technologies, the systems can self-clean, and also provide an even distribution of water, regardless of its quality and pressure. The most innovative of them allow increasing yields even in those regions where agriculture was not previously possible.
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Cherry tomatoes
Cherry tomato — cherry tomatoes, a type of tomato with small fruits (10-30 g). Known as a snack, used in various salads and for canning, and some cherry varieties can even be dried. Unlike ordinary tomatoes, cherry tomatoes are kept fresh for a long time. Cherry tomato was bred in 1973 by Israeli scientists from the Hebrew University as part of the Hazera Genetics project. The purpose of their work was to slow down the rapid ripening of common tomatoes in hot climates. They identified a genetic combination that slows ripening, and a way to use the resulting genes to breed cherry tomatoes.
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BioBee — an alternative to pesticide use
The BioBee Sde Eliyahu company is engaged in the mass rearing and use of beneficial insects in agriculture. These include natural enemies of pests and the bumblebee for natural pollination of greenhouses and outdoor crops. The products of the biological method of plant protection, used both in bioorganic and in integrated protection systems, lead to a noticeable decrease in the amount of pesticides used that are dangerous to humans and the environment. Integrated Crop Protection is at the forefront of modern agriculture and is an alternative to massive pesticide use.
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ТraitUP — a genetic revolution in agriculture
The TraitUP technology of the Israeli company Morflora allows you to implant genetic material into seeds without altering their DNA. This method significantly improves the characteristics of plants even before they are planted. The ability to improve the properties of plants in a matter of days, rather than years, and to care for them with the same efficiency as with all existing species of beneficial insects, offers the opportunity to fundamentally change modern agriculture, as well as influence the vegetable markets and markets. commercial crops.
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GrainPro — cocoons for grain
GrainPro manufactures sealed silage storage packaging for livestock and dairy farms. In addition, the company also manufactures grain bins and low-cost, rain-proof solar dryers. GrainPro solutions have become a real salvation for farmers in Asia and Africa, who are suffering huge losses due to problems with long-term storage of grain products.
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Potatoes that can grow in the desert
As a result of 20 years of research, professor at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem David Levy has developed a potato variety that can grow in hot, dry climates and be watered with seawater. Potatoes are one of the staple foods in most parts of the world. It used to be impossible to grow in the hot, desert climates of Africa and the Middle East. Now, thanks to David Levy’s innovative varieties, farmers even in these regions have the opportunity to grow and, moreover, sell potatoes.
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Veterix Livestock Electronic Capsule
Israeli company Veterix has developed a unique electronic capsule that will send livestock owners detailed information about the health of their charges and other important data related to the life of animals. Veterix has created a wireless transmitter that sends alarms to farmers by email or cell phone, informing them, for example, when an animal is hurt, injured, worried or lost. The new technology has been a great help for livestock owners who are interested in proper management of their herds.
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Department of Agriculture, Food and the Environment, Robert H. Smith Hebrew University.

The faculty’s teaching and research activities continue to play a central role in the development of agriculture in order to strengthen the Israeli economy. By protecting and restoring the environment while increasing food production and reducing world hunger. Mobilizing agriculture to meet human health needs and improve the quality and purity of agricultural products; And sharing the results of Israeli research and innovation with other countries.

Faculty graduates are active in farming communities — kibbutz (collective farms), moshavs (agricultural cooperatives of farmers) or private farms — using their know-how to compete in world markets; They also constitute a significant part of the staff of the Agricultural Research Organization and Science Directorate of the Ministry of Agriculture. They occupy most of the leading positions in the Ministry of the Environment. They represent a significant professional staff in many Israeli companies engaged in production related to local and international agriculture (drip irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, etc.). Become teachers of biology, nutrition and agriculture at universities, high schools and colleges across the country; And they work abroad under contracts, providing practical assistance on Israeli technical assistance, cooperation and R&D projects.
Some of the advances and innovations in the Faculty’s research area include drip irrigation techniques and storage of finished crop products. Most of all, they focus on tomatoes and vegetables grown with a long shelf life, improved flavor and disease resistance. Soil solarization is a non-chemical method of combating diseases of soil plants. Green farming methods — use of natural biofertilizers and biocontrol with biofungicides and parasitic insects — to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers, fungicides and pesticides; Recovery technologies for wastewater disposal and composting of solid municipal and agricultural waste. Using plants to purify water contaminated with heavy metals.
Faculty research and innovation have improved and increased yields in fruits, vegetables, grains, flowers and cotton; Helped to overcome the problems of pests and soil pollution. Faculty research has led to the most efficient use of water for agriculture. Scientists have created groundbreaking innovations in irrigation technology. Helped to develop the export of flowers in Israel every year almost from scratch, to the current status of one of the largest exporters of flowers in the world and many others.

Agricultural Science in Israel.
Leading Israeli innovation, agro, and biotechnology — Research Institute «Volkani»
Agricultural research in Israel is based on close collaboration and interaction between scientists, consultants, farmers and agriculture-related industries. Israel’s semi-arid climate and lack of high-quality water are the main obstacles facing Israeli agriculture. Thanks to the wide production of greenhouses, vegetables, fruits and flowers are grown for export to European markets during the winter off-season.

The Agricultural Experiment Station, founded in 1921, was transformed into the Agricultural Research Organization (ARO), commonly known as the Volkani Institute. The Department of Agriculture at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Tel Aviv University, Bar-Ilan University, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev and the Weizmann Institute of Science are also involved in agricultural research.
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5) http://nizinew.co.il/nauka/estestvennye-nauki/gde-kak-i-chemu-obuchayut-specialistov-selskogo-xozyajstva-v-izraile.html
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The most complete impression of Israel’s biotechnology innovations can be obtained from the article:
6) http://nizinew.co.il/nauka/estestvennye-nauki/selskoe-khozyajstvo-izrailya-obzor.html
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Human resources decide the fate of innovation in any field of knowledge.
Training of innovative engineers.
An innovative engineer belongs to the category of specialists whose work belongs to the highest forms of human activity (creative workers, scientists, engineers-inventors, teachers, doctors, lawyers). The process of training these specialists differs in that they achieve a productive (or high) qualification level 10 to 12 years after the start of their studies at the university. This is due to the fact that in the pedagogy of vocational training for the foreseeable historical period, there have been no significant methodological breakthroughs aimed at reducing the time of professional development. The spontaneous daily process of acquiring individual professional experience is dominant for this category of specialists.
Unlike traditional educational methods, the process of training innovative engineers must also be innovative. It is necessary to develop teaching methods that contribute to improving the quality of training and reducing the time it takes for specialists to achieve the level of professional skill.
Associative didactics is an effective didactic method, which, in addition to excluding isomorphic educational information from the educational materials to be studied, significantly increases the breadth and strength of knowledge due to the synergistic teaching effect. This effect is achieved by combining isomorphic phenomena, processes, principles, laws, various kinds of analogies, etc. in a common thematic structure. based on common unifying features. As a result, the use of associative didactics serves the purpose of forming an individual applied knowledge base of each student.
Associative didactics is intended primarily for the targeted training of innovative engineers with an existing academic education, a creative style of thinking and the necessary motivation. This method does not provide for a banal repetition of the disciplines passed at the university. Associative didactics is focused on training a specialist with a high level of professional mobility within one of the innovative areas for the implementation of the functions of innovative engineering.
7)

Подготовка инновационных инженеров.


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Why innovative technologies are more successfully created in the USA and Israel, but this process stalls in Russia and other CIS countries.
Barry Jaruzelski writes in Scientific America: “For decades, many have tried to unravel the secret of Silicon Valley’s success, but so far in vain. I admit that many hi-tech specialists live in the cities located in the southern part of the San Francisco Bay, but this factor itself hardly explains anything, because ambitious and young inventors work not only in Silicon Valley. Or maybe Silicon Valley has some special properties, thanks to which many of the specialists in it settle? I admit that there are many universities, government research centers and commercial laboratories in the vicinity of the valley. It is unlikely that anywhere else you can find a place that has created all the conditions for so-called startups: there is a huge number of high-quality workers, and access to venture capital, and an entrepreneurial culture saturated with a desire to take risks is also there. However, in this, Silicon Valley is by no means original. By the way, it should be noted that hotbeds of innovation, albeit on a smaller scale, have already appeared in other parts of the United States — take, for example, the so-called Research Triangle in North Carolina or Circuit Highway 128 in the Boston area. Northern New Jersey is also fertile ground for innovation, home to the legendary Bell Labs, leading universities, and nearby Wall Street, the capital of the world where big investments can be made. But all this is not enough.
One feature that sets Silicon Valley companies apart from mainstream companies has been found — the ability to integrate a company’s innovative strategies with its business strategies. It is this property that separates successful companies from not entirely successful or not at all successful. The study argues that Silicon Valley companies are nearly four times stronger than conventional US companies cited in Booz & Co.’s annual Global Innovation 1000 survey to adapt their overall corporate strategy to innovation. It is no coincidence that the corporate culture of Silicon Valley companies is also two and a half times more tied to the company’s innovation strategy. And such a link gives a big gain. According to the Global Innovation 1000 study, companies that successfully align their innovation strategies with corporate goals are more successful than those that do not — both in terms of profitability and their asset value.
With innovation as a priority, Silicon Valley companies are four times more likely than others to reorganize their structures, seek out talent, and dump them into product development. Our research has identified three main types of innovation strategies. The first type includes the dominant Silicon Valley companies, which we call “needs seekers” — they strive to identify real (both explicit and implicit) customer needs and try to satisfy these needs, and then release a product or service to the market as soon as possible. The other two types are the following companies: «technology leaders», who focus more on the recommendations of their engineering departments than on the preferences of customers, and the so-called «fast followers», who seek to gradually implement technology borrowings obtained as a result of careful market monitoring. … It turned out that “prospectors of needs” over a five-year interval overtake two other types of companies both in terms of gross profit and in terms of the value of the company’s assets. In addition, our research states that “needs seekers” tend to make decisions about their innovation strategy at the highest level — at the management level; after that, they communicate the strategy to the rest of the company and try to strictly adhere to the established project management strategy in the field of research and development. In general, any company that belongs to the category of «prospectors of needs» (and in particular Silicon Valley companies) tries to strictly focus on the end consumer and does everything to lure him with its products and services. Such a company is trying to become more open to promising innovations, regardless of the source of their origin. A similar model is followed by 46 percent of Silicon Valley companies, compared with 28 percent of the rest of US companies on the Global Innovation 1000 list. Perhaps the reason for this lies in the peculiarities of the culture of venture entrepreneurship inherent in Silicon Valley, namely, a strong focus on business plans and a desire to anticipate customer needs. Perhaps this is the secret of Silicon Valley. The companies that settle there strive for excellence; In their innovative activities, they put the needs of customers at the forefront, highly value young talents and new ideas. Creating a semblance of Silicon Valley by combining resources and ideas in a special way for this purpose is difficult, if not impossible. Nevertheless, attempts continue because the reward is too great.
The innovation activity of Israeli start-up companies and universities developed in a similar way, where Silicon Valley is deployed on the coastal zone from Haifa to Tel Aviv, where the concentration of innovative developments is the highest.
8)

Инновации : факты, перспективы, проблемы, прогнозы.


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It is very difficult to give an answer to the question that has arisen in recent decades, how a small country with a population of slightly more than 9 million people with a territory of about 1% of the area of Russia is among the most dynamically developing countries in the world and at the same time makes a huge contribution to the world fundamental and applied science … It is no exaggeration to say that Israel has become an innovative superpower that creates the latest technologies and contributes to economic prosperity in the world.
According to a study conducted by the international consulting firm KPMG Llp, Israel was ranked second in the world for innovative prospects. The ranking was compiled through a survey of 811 technology experts, investors and CEOs of the largest companies in America, Asia-Pacific, Europe, Africa and the Middle East. Each of the respondents assessed their country according to 10 success criteria: accessibility of innovation for citizens, government support for innovative growth, accessibility of talents, capital, etc. In the first place in the ranking was India with 72 points, in the second place — just a little behind Israel with 71 points, in the third — the USA with 65 points, in the fourth — China with 64 points.
A very important and comprehensive Global Innovation Index 2013 has also been published, which is annually developed by the World Intellectual Property Organization in cooperation with Cornell University and the INSEAD business school.
The Global Innovation Index has been compiled since 2007 by a consortium of Cornell University (USA), INSEAD Business School (France) and the World Intellectual Property Organization. GII-2019 is formed on the basis of 80 indicators, combined into seven groups, for 129 countries. The final rating is calculated as the average of two sub-indices — innovation resources (institutions, human capital and science, infrastructure, development of the domestic market and business) and innovation results (progress in technology and the knowledge economy, development of creative activity). The innovation efficiency ratio is defined as the ratio of two sub-indices, thus reflecting the aggregated innovation efficiency for a given innovation potential.

The Index-2013 assessed 142 countries of the world. The experts’ assessment is based on 84 indicators, such as the quality of education at universities, the availability of funding, the number of deals with the involvement of venture capital, and others. Not only innovation potential is assessed, but also the results of already implemented technologies; ahead of the developed countries, the very form of existence of which is based on the constant introduction of advanced technologies.
Basically, the economies of these countries are focused not on raw materials technologies, but on the use of imported raw materials for the production of aircraft, machinery, electronics, medical equipment and pharmaceutical products, and agricultural production. These are the countries forced to live in conditions of tough competition in the world market. This requires constant innovation, especially in industry, in order to increase labor productivity and reduce the cost of its products.
Israel climbed up the index, ranking 21st in the world in 2016, 17th in 2017, 11th in 2018, and entered the top 10 for the first time this 2019.
GII selects and evaluates the world’s most innovative countries from 129 countries using a sophisticated algorithm and measuring 80 metrics with which it explores the country’s overall creative environment.
There is a noticeable backlog of countries that are referred to as «dynamically developing with low and middle income», including China, Russia (62nd place), India (66th place). Iran -113 and Venezuela 114; Israel is ranked 14th. Among Israel’s neighbors, Cyprus — 27th, Jordan — 61, Turkey — 68, Lebanon — 75, Egypt — 108, Syria — 134. Among the countries of the former Soviet Union, Estonia — 25, Latvia — 33, Lithuania — 40, Moldova — 45 , Armenia — 59, Ukraine — 71, Georgia — 73, Kazakhstan — 84, Azerbaijan — 105.
The analytical publication Global Innovation Index 2013 noted the fact that many developing countries are unsuccessfully trying to copy Western models. The purpose of this article is to reveal the system that contributed to the rapid development of the Israeli economy. We hope that for Russia, with its enormous potential, some aspects of Israel’s proven experience may turn out to be something useful.
The first and perhaps most important takeaway from the Israeli experience is that the state should support new developments, but not tie the hands of researchers.
60 years ago, Israel exported mainly citruses, and now 11% of Israel’s GDP is high-tech products, and more than half of the $ 70 billion in exports are high-tech goods. There are more than 4 thousand start-up companies operating in the country — about the same as in the USA. This is called the «Israeli miracle» and it was the result of the right innovation policy.
There is one more feature of the Israeli high-tech and innovation industry: its openness to the whole world, its initial focus on conquering the world market. As a result, Israeli smart heads are spawning the revolutionary ICQ communications program; create mini-carriers of computer information «disk-on-key», etc.
In Israel, they learned how to bring the development of scientists to the state of a market product. The rector of Ariel University in Samaria, Professor Zinigrad, notes that “as in any civilized country, commercial activity is prohibited for universities in Israel. But every university has technology transfer companies. Where they have been working for 15-20 years, they make a profit. The Ariel University company is still unprofitable, although it is already making millions of dollars. The university invests a certain amount every year, realizing that this is an investment in the future.

All Israeli universities have long had a company to promote patents for faculty and staff. They register patents not only at home, in Israel, but wherever it is required.
Technological greenhouses (incubators) occupy a very important place in the system of creation, development and support of innovations in Israel. Initially — in 1992 — INCUBATORS were conceived specifically for repatriates from the former USSR. Later «greenhouses», as they were called in the country, became open to all Israelis, including Arabs. The management of such structures takes over all bureaucratic and organizational issues, and the inventors get the opportunity to engage exclusively in development. “The company in the ‘greenhouse’ is provided with all the necessary infrastructure that a new business may need — laboratories, servers, and is in a favorable scientific environment. Therefore, an entrepreneur can focus on the most important thing — the development of his product.
Each INCUBATOR develops an average of 10 startups simultaneously. The new enterprise is gaining strength in the «greenhouse» for two or three years, and then goes on an independent voyage. If the project is successful, the businessman returns the money by paying royalties — usually 3-4% of sales. If not, the entrepreneur is not responsible to the state. In this regard, a careful selection of applications is carried out.
The budget allocated for one innovative project is 350-600 thousand dollars. Biotechnology companies can receive up to $ 1.8 million in government funding within three years. Thanks to the programs of technology INCUBATORS and venture funds, the volume of exports of products of high-tech companies, according to data from the Central Bureau of Statistics of Israel, has grown from 11.2 billion dollars in 2000 to nearly 20 billion dollars in 2012. A competent state policy has attracted world leaders in the field of innovative technologies to the country. The essence of Israel’s innovation policy is expressed in comprehensive assistance to companies in the high-tech sector. This often takes the form of direct subsidies for research and development. For example, the Bureau of Chief Scientist under the Ministry of Industry and Trade provides about $ 400 million annually in research and development scholarships, which covers 30% to 66% of the total cost. About 100 million dollars a year are compensated by the ministry in the form of interest payments, subject to the successful sale of products.

In addition, the state has created a special infrastructure to support innovation. The Office of the Chief Scientist of the Ministry of Industry and Trade provides assistance to start-up enterprises that have been established in all technology greenhouses throughout the country. About a thousand promising technical ideas were recommended for implementation in these «greenhouses». Every year, at least a hundred of the companies bred in technological greenhouses sign agreements with investors or with 5 commercial partners. The amounts of contracts vary from several tens of thousands to tens of millions for each of the projects, depending on the stage of development of a particular technological idea. The initiator of innovations submits the necessary materials, including a business plan, and after receiving a place in the «greenhouse», he is entitled to a grant in the amount of either 85% of the approved project budget, or up to 170 thousand dollars per year for two years. Loan repayment begins only after the developer has raised external funding. Venture funds, as a rule, have a positive attitude towards projects that are accepted by the commission for testing in a technological greenhouse. If it was not possible to interest anyone with it, then the loan is written off in full and without any further obligations on the part of the developer.

The Office of the Chief Scientist of the Ministry of Industry and Trade enforces R&D agreements at all stages, complementing the set of Israeli free trade agreements with the United States, Canada, the European Community, the European Free Trade Association and several European countries. Israel cooperates in this area with France, the Netherlands, Spain, Portugal, Austria, Belgium, Ireland and India.
The Investment Center of the Ministry of Trade and Industry provides subsidies for the creation of new and expansion of existing industrial enterprises. The size of the loan depends on the region — enterprises located in the peripheral zones are entitled to apply for more substantial subsidies. High-tech firms are generally not particularly capital intensive, so they prefer a form of incentive such as tax breaks.
The Israeli government funds innovation directly and indirectly. The role of the state in the formation of venture capital is also significant. The creation of several venture capital funds by the Israeli government in the early 1990s was followed by an inflow of foreign capital and the creation of 10 more similar funds in the country.
all developments and products that are based on Israeli innovations are exported to the USA and Europe. For example, 75% of products that were developed by Israeli scientists (we are talking about Centrino processors) and are manufactured at Intel factories in Israel are exported. USB flash, IP telephony and ICQ were developed in Israel. And the latest developments include a video camera pill that you just need to swallow like a regular pill, and it will show what is happening in the intestines. That is, you do not need to swallow the probe.
Every year, foreigners buy out new Israeli start-up companies from technological greenhouses, where up to a thousand projects a year mature. This is the most profitable business in the world … As a recent example: the world’s largest manufacturer of networking equipment Cisco Systems announced the purchase of the Israeli firm Intucell for about $ 475 million. The technology, developed by Israeli specialists, allows wireless service providers to manage their networks. The takeover of Ra’anana-based Intucell is Cisco’s next move aimed at generating large revenues from wireless networks and, in particular, from providers of such networks, which are constantly increasing their capital volumes by increasing traffic. The number of smartphones, tablets and other mobile devices is growing at a breakneck pace, requiring powerful networks to operate that cannot be effectively managed without the necessary hardware and software. ”
Currently, other multinational corporations such as Intel, Google, Microsoft and CiscoSystems have already established more than 200 research centers. The purchase of XtremIO by EMC reaffirms Israel’s reputation as a rich source of highly skilled people and technical excellence. Lucas Merian Computerworld, USA reveals some details of this deal. When EMC executives negotiated in Israel to buy XtremIO, a developer of NAND flash storage arrays, there were representatives from NetApp and Dell, who also claimed the Israeli company’s intellectual property. EMC acquired XtremIO, following Apple’s lead in January in acquiring Anobit, another Israeli flash storage design company.

In 2010-2019, the World Economic Forum awarded Israel the first place in the world for the quality of research institutions. In addition, according to the experts of the Forum, the country ranks seventh in the world in terms of the rate of innovation. EMC 8 has about 800 employees in Israel, a research and development center that, among other things, develops VMware technologies.
2012 has become a pivotal year of innovation and progress in Israel. Israelis have been at the forefront of the latest developments in hundreds of areas: culture and arts, biotechnology, medicine, environment, science and technology. Renowned for innovation, Israeli companies have brought dozens of exciting new technologies to market from mobile apps to cardboard bicycles, from invisible keyboards to runway protection. Israeli researchers have made breakthroughs in cancer, Alzheimer’s, diabetes, infertility, viruses, and asthma. Israelis have received world prizes in the fight against hunger, solar energy, development and irrigation of deserts.
One of the criteria for the investment and technological attractiveness of the country is the development centers of large international companies opened on its territory. In this sense, 2016 can be called a record year. In November, a Mercedes-Benz R&D center was opened in Tel Aviv, which will focus mainly on mobile information services for cars, and a few months earlier, also in Tel Aviv, a Samsung NEXT innovation center and an R&D center of the group of companies were created. Bosch. A landmark event was the opening in Israel of the global research center of the Harvard Business School, which ranks third in the world according to the Financial Times. Standing apart are two initiatives launched in 2016 to explore … the properties of marijuana. In July, a national marijuana research center was established in Rishon LeZion, bringing together all existing medical marijuana greenhouses under one roof, and Cann10, the first startup incubator targeting medical cannabis companies, launched in September. It should be noted that over the past couple of years, American investors have invested $ 50 million in Israeli licenses and patents related to cannabis, for example, Philip Morris has invested in the Israeli startup Syqe.
Also in the United States in the 1980s, various programs to stimulate innovation appeared: Small Business Innovation Research, Small Business Investment Company-reformed, Small Business Technology Transfer, Manufacturing Extension Partnership. These are various grants for development, for research, for joint work with universities. Thanks to grants, many new joint research ventures and scientific and technological centers have been created. Another incentive was the US National Medal of Technology and Innovation, a government award for outstanding contributions to the national economic, environmental, and public welfare through the development and commercialization of technological products, technological processes and concepts, through technological innovation and the development of a national technology workforce. strength, which is received by an average of about eight people or companies per year.
In general, an innovation system operates in the United States, within which the state acts as a researcher of the future, a customer of promising developments and an incubator for bringing them to the point of becoming an industrial design. After that, the business enters the business, which turns innovation into mass products and organizes its commercialization. The main idea of government influence is to ensure the agency’s innovative imperative, to protect its activities from protectionism and agency interests. It is necessary not to wait for a surge of innovative activity from institutions that have lost their potential, but to create new structures for creative people with promising ideas. Actually, this is how scientific centers arose at one time, bearing the names of their creators. An innovative structure must be created for a person with an idea, and not vice versa. This is a fundamental point. An attempt to “attribute” the author of an innovative idea to the existing structure and immerse him in a well-established scientific substrate can ruin the whole matter.
Summarizing all of the above about the American innovation system, it is necessary to emphasize that in order to successfully work in the innovation market in the United States, it is necessary to invent what others need, and not just interesting to the inventor himself.
9)

Инновационные системы США и Китая


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Speaking about the Israeli technological miracle, we must not forget that it became possible thanks to a clear government strategy — we are talking about a well-prepared impromptu.
Last year, this policy was expressed in a number of initiatives — the government reduced taxes for high-tech projects, Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu formed and personally led a team from a group of ministers responsible for the inflow of personnel in the Israeli IT industry, the Israeli Innovation Authority was created under the leadership of the former Apple Israel Executive Director Aaron Aaron, and a start-up visa program has been launched, under which foreign entrepreneurs will be able to stay in Israel for up to 24 months and apply for a government grant of up to 200,000 shekels (about $ 52,500) for their projects. At the highest level, a decision was also made to create an infrastructure that would allow (for the first time in the world) the widespread use of unmanned vehicles. The first step towards this has already been taken — the Ministry of Transport has allowed self-driving cars as part of a pilot project of Mobileye to move freely on the roads of the country.
It is no secret that the Israeli innovation industry is primarily export-oriented. The United States remains the largest player in the market, with American venture capital funds investing billions of dollars in Israeli startups. Chinese investors are also showing an unprecedented interest in Israel — more than 1,000 entrepreneurs from China took part in the annual Sino-Israeli investment conference held in Tel Aviv in September 2016 — it is not without reason that over the past four years, Chinese investors have invested more than $ 15 billion in Israeli companies.
Relations with Japan have intensified dramatically — NIKKEI Asia Review notes a surge in Japanese corporate interest in Israel (especially in the areas of cybersecurity and financial technology), spurred by Sony’s takeover of the Israeli startup Altair Semiconductor.
One of the largest investment structures in the world — the national investment fund of Singapore Temasek — is creating a special fund of $ 150 million to invest in the Israeli economy.
Although the share of European investment capital in the Israeli startup scene has been steadily declining, there is growing interest in Israeli technology transfer from European corporations and government agencies. In February 2016, an agreement was signed to increase the credit line to Israeli start-ups as part of the EU-supported “InnovFin — EU finance for innovators” initiative.
In 2016, three large Israeli companies announced the creation of their representative offices in Ukraine. Wix plans to open an R&D center in Kiev for several dozen people (the company already has a team in Dnipro of about 60 employees). The management of the startup SimilarWeb also intends to open an office in Ukraine. And the international corporation Check Point announced the creation of a full-fledged representative office and training center in Ukraine.
In December 2016, Tel Aviv hosted the Israeli-Ukrainian Forum of Entrepreneurs, organized by the Israeli Friends of Ukraine movement. Among the speakers of the forum from Ukraine, the deputy head of the Presidential Administration of Ukraine Dmitry Shymkiv (ex-CEO of Microsoft Ukraine) and the president of the high-tech holding KM Core Yevgeny Utkin stood out, the Israeli side was represented, in particular, by the managing partner of Sushi Ventures Shahar Namer and the general director of the center developed by Wix Boaz Inbal.
Forecasting is a thankless task, but a number of trends in 2020 are already evident. First, the role of foreign investors in the Israeli startup market will continue to grow. Secondly, solutions related to self-driving cars are becoming one of the most popular.
The medical cannabis technology market is also expected to grow exponentially — Israel is one of the leaders in this area. Cybersecurity remains the flagship of the Israeli industry. International corporations are increasingly hiring people from the Israeli security forces to create innovative companies, for example, the ex-head of the Shabak, Yuval Diskin, at the suggestion of Volkswagen, will head CyMotive Technologies, which develops security platforms for next-generation vehicles.
This also applies to innovation in biotechnology.
Overall, the Israeli innovation industry is showing incredible resilience — in terms of both financial success and market dynamics.
As an example of the uniqueness of Israeli developments, it should be especially noted that in the Rambam Medical Center, for the first time in the history of Israeli medicine, an operation was performed on the human brain using guided ultrasound waves under the guidance of MRI. This intervention was made possible by innovative medical technology developed by the Israeli research company Insitech. New technology makes ultrasound waves an effective medical instrument that can replace the surgeon’s knife. The main innovation of this treatment is that it is carried out without anesthesia, without the need to open the patient’s skull, without the risk of infecting the patient, and does not require any rehabilitation period at all. The patient can stand up immediately after the procedure is completed. «Operation without operation» at the Rambam medical center was performed for a seventy-three-year-old resident of the north of the country who had suffered from severe body tremors for the past fifteen years. Upon arrival at the medical center, the patient’s right side of the body, and especially the right hand, trembled violently. The patient could not write, hold a cup of coffee in his hands, or perform other elementary actions. The “operation without surgery” that cured the patient was made possible by the combined efforts of Insitech and Rambam Medical Center.
«Operation without operation» began at nine in the morning and lasted two hours. At the end of the procedure, the patient easily got out of bed himself. He moved without the slightest difficulty and felt great. He told the doctors that he felt himself reborn.
It has long been known to brain surgeons that diseases such as Parkinson’s disease, tremors, or neuropathic pain are treated by removing tiny areas of the brain that the disease forces to over-function. The idea behind Insitech’s go-to-go method is to merge the two technologies. It has long been known that when directed ultrasound waves touch body tissues, they can remove or burn out tiny pieces of tissue, including brain tissue. And to direct these waves to the desired point, Insitech used MRI technology that allows you to obtain a detailed, three-dimensional image of the patient’s brain in real time and indicates a local temperature increase in the brain tissue, connecting it with a device that looks like a helmet and emits ultrasonic waves high power, aimed at one tiny point in the patient’s brain. The waves are directed to the desired point with an accuracy of a tenth of a millimeter. During the procedure, the patient himself lies motionless in the MRI machine, and the operating neurosurgeon is behind a glass window, five meters from the patient. The surgeon, using a computer mouse, activates the helmet, which begins to emit ultrasonic waves directed to a point that is determined, a few seconds before, using an MRI. The patient is fully conscious all the time during the procedure; every few minutes the doctors inquire about his state of health. The neurosurgeon periodically increases the intensity of ultrasonic waves, and in the intervals between mini-sessions of radiation, neurologists monitor the patient’s health, examine him, check his reflexes and the possibility of functioning. Within ten minutes after the start of the procedure, a significant improvement is observed: for example, a patient who was not able to draw a straight line copes well with the movements of the pencil.
Business Insider has published a ranking of the top 25 Israeli high-tech innovation start-ups, based on the companies’ achievements over the past year and interviews with investors who have invested in them.
In third place is Cortica, a startup that develops high-precision image recognition technology. The Image2TextTM technology created by the Israeli company, based on the analysis of the work of the human cerebral cortex during image recognition, allows not only recognizing pictures and videos, but also automatically creating a taxonomy for them for subsequent contextual search.
10)

Кому нужны израильские инновации


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Biotechnology in the United States has helped the bioindustry in the production of new compounds and optimization, and in expanding the production of products such as alcohols, acids, antibiotics, and enzymes (see Primary metabolites, secondary metabolites, and enzyme technology), as well as unicellular proteins and mycoproteins.

Advances in US biotechnology.
In genetic engineering programs, it has become possible to map the entire genome of an organism in order to figure out the function of genes, cut and transfer to another organism (see Genetic Engineering Tools and Genetic Engineering Techniques). Thanks to the success of gene cloning, many products have been produced using genetically engineered cells, and hopefully many of them can be produced within the current decade. Recombinant DNA technology has facilitated the identification of genetic diseases and prenatal treatment or advice. The gene bank and the DNA clone bank were created to make available different types of genes with their known function. Thus, recombinant DNA technology has allowed the development of vaccines against viral and malaria diseases, growth hormones, and interferon (see Genetic Engineering for Human Well-being).
Biotechnology has revolutionized agricultural science. Cell culture and protoplast fusion techniques have led to the production of hybrid / cybrid plants through intergeneric crosses that are usually not possible with conventional hybridization techniques. He also assisted in the production of encapsulated seeds, somaclonal variants, disease resistant plants, herbicide and stress resistant plants, and m / and nod gene transfer. With the help of cell culture methods, the industrial production of essential oils, alkaloids, pigments, etc. has been increased.However, there is still a lot of work in horticulture and forest plants in terms of micropropagation and acclimatization of mycorrhizal fungi (see Biotechnological application of plant cells, tissues and organ cultures).
To increase the productivity of agricultural crops, the use of biofertilizers (bacterization of seeds, algae and the application of green fertilizers) has become an alternative tool for synthetic chemical fertilizers. Biofertilizers are non-toxic to micro- and macrobiota, as well as to humans. This would lower the constraints for fossil fuel industries (see Biological Nitrogen Fixation and Biofertilizers). Moreover, to discourage the use of synthetic pesticides, biocontrol agents have been developed and conditions have been investigated when antagonism occurs (see Biological control of plant pathogens, pests and weeds.
In recent years, a lot of attention has been paid to environmental protection and pollution reduction, wastewater treatment, municipal waste processing and xenobiotic chemicals. To combat these problems, bacterial plasmids have been developed that can be used to degrade complex polymers to non-toxic forms. Strains of cyanobacteria, green algae and fungi have been developed that can be used to treat urban and domestic wastewater and industrial effluents in non-toxic forms and renew them as an energy source.
Biotechnology has assisted the bioindustry in the production of new compounds and optimization, and in the expansion of the production of products such as alcohols, acids, antibiotics and enzymes (see Primary metabolites, secondary metabolites and enzyme technology), as well as single-cell proteins and mycoproteins.
Technologies have also been developed to find an alternative energy source from biomaterials derived from agricultural, industrial, forestry and municipal sources (see Biomass: Renewable Energy). Social forestry and short-turnover tree planting will help reduce pressure on forests to meet rural fuel demand. In industry, biomass systems have been developed to meet the energy needs of motors such as sugarcane mills. In addition, municipal wastewater and algae are used to produce biogas for cooking and lighting (see Biomass Energy (Bioenergy).

Ban on genetic food
Around the world, there is growing concern that genetic foods can pose a threat to human health, ecology and the environment. However, this has forced many governments to rethink the adoption of such a design culture.
For the first time, scientific advisers to the European Commission have recommended that genetically modified potatoes should not be released from the market as they cannot guarantee their safety. Worried about growing vandalism against genetically engineered crops in the UK, the Environment Minister said his government was considering a three-year ban on the cultivation of transgenic crops for commercial use. The United States, the world’s largest producer of genetically modified foods, also threatened New Zealand to ban its genetically engineered foods.

11) https://biocyclopedia.com/index/biotechnology/introduction/biotech_achievements.php
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What is in the European Union? What innovations are developing in biotechnology there?
FET-Open Project SUMCASTEC Workshop on Biomedical Applications of Electromagnetic Energy
The seminar «Biomedical Applications of Electromagnetic Energy» presents technological developments made in the framework of the project «Ultra-wideband micromanipulation based on semiconductors with STE-cancerous cells» (SUMCASTEC).
laboratory on crystal
The European Commission has published a new brochure that shows several examples of how EU support for research and innovation is actually changing the lives of citizens and society at large. It is designed for all age groups, so everyone can understand what a good job EU funding can do.
Innovative electricity generation from olive mill waste
EU-funded researchers are seeking to commercialize cutting-edge technologies that convert toxic waste olive oil into heat and electricity, bringing environmental and economic benefits to some of Europe’s most underdeveloped regions.
Chiappalone in BRAINBOW
Professor Michela Chiappalone is a neurobiologist in the Department of Neurobiology and Brain Technology of the Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT). She is also the coordinator of the BRAIN BOW FET Open project, which aims to connect in vitro neural assemblies to an artificial system to restore the lost functionality of neurons. In this interview, she tells us about her experiences as an FET researcher.

The future of human-machine interaction in the SI-CODE FET Open project

Can we crack the code that neurons use to encode and transmit information? Can we use our knowledge of neural code to improve communication between the brain and machines? SI-CODE addresses these issues, aiming to take a big step forward in improving the understanding of the code used by neurons to communicate information with potential applications in innovative brain-machine interfaces (BMIs).
Studying biodiversity for the production of environmentally friendly cosmetics and agrochemicals

AGROCOS is a pioneering European project that uses modern scientific methods to study ancient — and still largely untapped — natural resources to develop new products for the agrochemical and cosmetics industry.

Preserving animal DNA for future generations
It has only been two centuries since the concept of selective breeding has been scientifically applied to farm animals, helping to produce cows, sheep and goats with characteristics such as lean muscle, disease resistance and efficient reproduction.
Replicating factory production processes for key drugs
About a quarter of all prescription pharmaceuticals in the developed world are derived from plants, including well-known drugs such as morphine and codeine. Harvesting plants for such medicines can be slow, wasteful and very expensive, but often there is no synthetic alternative.
[Reproduction of factory production processes for essential medicines]
European Researchers Improve Next Generation Biofuel Technologies
Ethanol is relatively easy to produce and can be used in existing engines. However, the so-called first generation technology currently used to produce ethanol is energy efficient, offering little carbon savings compared to gasoline, and it relies on edible crops such as corn and sugar beets, which some scientists believe could lead to to the growth of world food prices.

Crossing borders in search of alternative rubber
Natural rubber is a unique raw material with a wide range of applications. A European substitute is vital to lessen the current dependence on the rubber tree, which mainly grows in Asia.
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12)
https://ec.europa.eu/programmes/horizon2020/en/newsroom/achievements/463
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25 historic breakthroughs in biotechnology in Europe.

Biotechnology is any technology, process or practice that modifies or uses any living organism or system for any human purpose.

Bio-Life
Technology is the application or use of science for a specific purpose.

Agriculture is the practice of purposefully growing plants.
GMOs are genetically modified organisms.
Livestock raising is the process of keeping, feeding, breeding and using animals.
Fermentation starter cultures are two ancient and widespread cooking methods that exemplify early biotechnology.
Vaccinations are the introduction of a deactivated version of a virus that usually causes illness in a healthy person.
Insulin is a protein hormone that helps lower blood sugar levels.
DNA is a complex molecule that contains genetic information.

Vocab- Cont.
recombinant DNA — DNA obtained by combining DNA from different sources.
cloning — making a genetically identical copy of DNA or an organism
PCR is a method that allows you to make multiple copies of a specific segment of DNA without using living cells.
proteases — enzymes that break down proteins
antibodies — specialized proteins that help destroy infectious agents
fermentation — the process by which cells release energy in the absence of oxygen
pharmaceutical — medicinal product
research and development — creating and experimenting with ideas related to new products, services or processes
pure science — knowledge obtained as a result of scientific activity
viruses — non-living parasites consisting of a genome inside a protein envelope
applied science — discovering ways to use scientific results to achieve practical goals
DNA fingerprinting — analysis of DNA fragments as a form of identification
The NIH is part of the US Department of Health and Human Services and the primary federal agency for the conduct and support of medical research.
CDC — Works to fight infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, AIDS, diphtheria, malaria, typhoid and influenza.
antibiotics — compounds that block the growth and reproduction of bacteria
restriction enzymes — an enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific nucleotide sequence.

Plant biotechnology
Plant biotechnology is a precise process that uses scientific methods to develop more plants. Many researchers see plant biotechnology as the next step in improving genetic improvement techniques that began thousands of years ago with the domestication of wild plants for food.
Scientists from the US and Canada have developed a biotech tomato that grows well in salty conditions, a discovery that could create tomatoes and other crops that can grow in adverse conditions.
The European Community publishes the results of a $ 64 million 15-year study involving over 400 research groups in 81 projects. Biotech products have been found to pose no greater risk to human health or the environment than conventional crops. EPA renews registration of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn and cotton, citing no health or environmental hazards.

A study by the National Center for Food and Agriculture Policy (NCFAP) shows that six biotech crops grown in the United States — soy, corn, cotton, papaya, pumpkin, and canola — provide an additional 1.8 million tonnes of food and fiber in the same area. increase farm income by $ 1.5 billion and reduce pesticide use by 210,000 tons.
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13) https://www.emaze.com/@ACRIIFQL
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The USA specially created
Organization of innovative biotechnology.
BIO is the world’s largest trade association representing biotechnology companies, academic institutions, government biotechnology centers and related organizations in the United States and over 30 other countries. BIO members are involved in the research and development of innovative products in the fields of healthcare, agriculture, industry and environmental protection. BIO also hosts the BIO International Convention, the world’s largest gathering for the biotech industry, as well as meetings of leading investors and partners around the world. BIOtechNOW is a BIO blog that describes “innovations that are transforming our world,” and the BIO Newsletter is the organization’s weekly e-newsletter.
Corporate members range from entrepreneurial companies developing the first product to Fortune 500 multinationals. We also represent state and regional biotechnology associations, industry service providers and academic centers. Our members help foster healthy economies by creating well-paid biotech jobs.
The Biotechnology Innovation Organization (BIO) is the largest trade organization in the world that represents the biotechnology industry. It was founded in 1993 as the Biotechnology Industry Organization and changed its name to the Biotechnology Innovation Organization on January 4, 2016.
The Biotechnology Innovation Organization serves more than 1,100 biotechnology firms, research schools, government biotechnology centers, and associated associations in the United States and over 30 other countries.
fourteen)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biotechnology_Innovation_Organization
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15) https://nationalhealthcouncil.org/member/biotechnology-innovation-organization/
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Biotechnology in the USA: Trends and Opportunities
Biotechnology is widely used in the world market. While other countries primarily use their biotechnology resources for pharmaceuticals and diagnostics, the United States of America has found many other uses for this innovative field of science.
Biotechnology in the United States has proven beneficial in health, food, agriculture, and industry. In all of these sectors, production has grown with the help of biotechnology, and the positive results have contributed greatly to the global economy.
Biotechnology in healthcare, agriculture and industry

Biotechnology in healthcare has led to an increase in the production of pharmaceuticals, diagnostics, nutritional supplements and cosmetology. In agriculture, it has proven useful for creating medicines used to relieve symptoms in animals and livestock. The industrial market has found the technology useful for making industrial enzymes, biofuels, and waste treatment and disposal.
Biotechnology and employment in the USA
As a major participant in 30% of the US biotech sector and the global market as a whole, Biotech has also created an increased demand for labor and opened up many opportunities for US citizens. In fact, market research shows that there are 2,349 public and private biotech companies in the country that provide their workers with an average annual wage of up to USD 88,000, more than double the average wage in the United States.

Biotechnology research and development
In 2013, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) provided capital funding for research and development in biotechnology. Market research found Boston received the highest grants and venture capital, followed by San Francisco. While the Midwest was leading research, pharmaceuticals were led by the East, and New York was one of the top states with the largest production. In the use of biotechnology in agriculture, Chicago was the leading state in terms of production.
Between 2009 and 2013, pharmaceuticals and medical devices were the most patented classes in US biotechnology. In 2014, the United States dominated as the leader in biotechnology research and development investment. Since then, research and investment in US biotechnology has grown steadily.

Adequate research materials are an important ingredient in the development of the biotech industry. This is vital to ensure effective support for businesses. Universities and other research institutions play an important role in the biotechnology value chain.
Academic research is funded through grants such as a grant from the NIH and technology transfer takes place after that. Once approved, all research and innovation results are passed on to manufacturers for development and commercialization.

USA. Obesity and Ophthalmology
Huge sums have been invested in financing one of the most costly diseases in the country — obesity. Over the next decade, one in every five dollars spent on health will be spent on obesity and obesity-related diseases, according to a statement released by the House of Representatives.
In fact, venture capital and research funding has been focused on treating metabolic diseases, with a 25% movement between 2004 and 2013. This is followed by cases of ophthalmology with a displacement of 10% in the previously mentioned terms.
Consequently, there is a wide range of biotechnology in the US, be it healthcare, agriculture, or industry, and obesity is a broad market of opportunity. Research is ongoing, and investments in attempts to use biotechnology to find solutions to many problem areas are encouraged. For in-depth market research, it would be helpful to employ a professional to obtain data on a specific sector.
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16) https://www.allianceexperts.com/en/knowledge/countries/america/chances-in-the-biotech-industry-in-the-us/
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China Biotechnology Innovation
China biotechnology industry
China has seen double-digit growth in its biotech industry and has grown from one of the slowest countries to one of the fastest in adopting new biotechnology. The biotechnology sector is viewed in China and around the world as a key area for national scientific and economic development. The main national biotechnology body in the country is the China National Biotechnology Development Center.
CNCBD is an organization established on November 3, 1983 under the Ministry of Science and Technology with the approval of the State Council. CNCBD is the only national center for the coordination and implementation of the national scientific and technical program in the field of biotechnology and health.

Health care
As the health care system improves and the awareness of people about the treatment of diseases increases, more non-conservative therapies are used in clinical practice, which promotes the development of blood products. Currently, blood products frequently used in clinical treatment include more than 20 types belonging to three sub-directories such as human serum albumin, immunoglobulin and blood coagulation factors.
Vaccine
The demand for charged vaccines has skyrocketed with the rise in consumption and people’s health awareness, so the market for charged vaccines is expanding rapidly. The loaded vaccine, as an addition to the free vaccine program, has contributed to the rapid growth of the domestic vaccine market, and the external diagnostic reagent is becoming familiar to people due to a deeper understanding of the catalogs and the therapeutic effect of biological products. Genetic and antibody-based drugs are now replacing chemical drugs that have many side effects for treating cancer patients, and this will open up more opportunities for them to survive.
Import and export
China’s biopharmaceutical imports and exports totaled $ 377 million in 2007, up 48% from last year. Imports reached $ 336 million, an increase of 51% over 2006, and exports totaled $ 41 million.
The export growth rate in 2007 decreased from 58% in 2006 to 26% in 2007. Although exports of China’s biopharmaceutical industry have consistently maintained high growth rates, their volume is very small compared to the volume of imports.
In 2007, exports totaled only $ 41 million, while imports increased to $ 336 million. This stark contrast indicates that the international market share of Chinese biopharmaceutical products is very low.
Agricultural biotechnology
China’s agriculture minister said in July 2006 that science and technology should drive up to 63% of the growth in the Chinese agricultural sector by 2020. The minister identified five areas that will be the focus of China’s focus in trying to harness the benefits of biotechnology in agriculture, including GM cotton and rice, safe agricultural products, agricultural equipment and research institutions.
State programs
National Key Technologies R&D Program (NCTDD)
Approved in 1982 and implemented on three five-year plans, the program includes three main issues: agriculture, new and high technologies and social development. Biological technology research focuses on agricultural breeding, gene medicine, marine biological products, and the industrialization of key technologies.
National Program for Research and Development of High Technologies (863 program)
The program was approved in March 1986 (since then it is simply called «863»). Its goal was to develop advanced high technology to narrow the gap between China and developed countries. The program lists biotechnology as one of seven target areas. 863 is China’s largest science and technology development program. The budget for Program 863 was increased from 5.9 billion yuan over the past 15 years to 15 billion yuan for the 10th five-year plan (2001-2005).
Flare program
Founded in 1988, the Torch Program aims to commercialize China’s new and high technology. The program encourages investment in China’s high-tech zones.
Spark program
The Spark program, established in 1986, was the first program to promote the development of a rural economy based on science and technology. One of the main directions of the program is the creation of high-yielding, high-quality and highly efficient agricultural products.

Science parks and incubators
Since the beginning of the Chinese Torch Program in August 1988, the State Council has approved 53 National Science and Technology Industrial Parks (STIP) (state-level high technology and new technology zones). By 2000, the STIP included 20,796 enterprises.
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17) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biotechnology_industry_in_China
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Chinese science and technology in the modern sense dates back only to the end of the 19th century. At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, now widely known universities were founded: Tianjin (1895), Beijing (1898), Nanjing (1902), Fudan (1905), as well as transport universities in Beijing and Shanghai (1896). Together with Japanese universities, where the Chinese emigrants received the first ideas about Western science, these educational institutions became bases for the training of scientific personnel. In 1928, the Kuomintang government established the Academy of Sciences (Academia Sinica), which united about 10 scientific centers and laboratories. In the 1930s, the first research centers in physics, biology, and pharmacology were established in Beijing, Shanghai and Nanjing. There were many repatriates among the small staff.

At the time of the formation of the PRC (1949), there were only about 500 scientists who were directly involved in research in 40 scientific centers. Half of them began to work in the institutions of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, formed in the same year. The training of scientific personnel in the 1950s was carried out with large-scale Soviet assistance: about 10 thousand Chinese students, graduate students, teachers and researchers were trained in the USSR. By the end of the decade, the number of scientists in the country had grown exponentially. In the 60s and 70s, internal turmoil and semi-isolation of the country negatively affected the training of personnel. The only exceptions were the military-industrial complex, oil and some other industries.
A radical turn in the field of education and science in China began only in the late 1970s — during the reforms initiated by Deng Xiaoping. Prior to the All-China Conference on the Development of Science and Technology, held in 1996, the PRC implemented state R&D programs in the field of key technologies (1982) and high technologies (1986), as well as the introduction of scientific and technological achievements (1990) and priority areas of fundamental research. (1991).
In 1996, the Ministry of Science and Technology and the State Committee for Economy and Trade of the PRC launched the «Program of Technological Innovation». It covered the areas of R&D, marketing, technology, equipment and new products. Then, in 1997, the «Basic Research Development Program» was adopted, the purpose of which was «to support those basic research that meets the urgent needs of the country, promotes the establishment of science at the forefront and addresses the problems of China’s long-term development.»
Since the mid-1990s, special programs have been carried out in China aimed at the development of science and technology in certain areas of the economy. Thus, the Iskra program (1996) provided for the introduction and dissemination of advanced scientific achievements in agriculture. It had enormous social significance: it was oriented towards the eradication of poverty in the countryside. The Fakel program, launched in 1997, aimed to commercialize scientific achievements. With its launch in China, industrial parks and centers for entrepreneurs began to emerge, giving a powerful impetus to the rise of high-tech enterprises.

At present, the PRC is implementing a long-term «Program for the Development of Science and Technology for the Period up to 2020», adopted at the 2006 All-China Conference. The Program contains two main approaches to the development of science and technology. The first — traditional — involves the implementation of large scientific projects with the full support of the state. The second approach is considered newer, it includes the development of industrial innovation and the commercialization of know-how. Overcoming technical backwardness, the formation of a modern complex system of productive forces, the most important link of which was recognized as science, developed gradually in three directions.
18) http://nizinew.co.il/novosti-sajta/innovacionnye-sistemy-ssha-i-kitaya.html
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What has the Chinese government done to improve the competitiveness of its biotech industry?
In this article, we discuss key government initiatives over the past decade to support the burgeoning biotechnology sector, as well as favorable external factors for private investment as well as talent pool.
In 2010, the State Council of China launched the Strategic Emerging Industries Initiative (SEI), which identifies seven SEIs that the Chinese government believes are critical to China’s economic competitiveness: energy efficient and environmental technologies, next generation information technology, biotechnology, high-tech manufacturing. equipment, new energy, new materials and new energy vehicles. The development of these sectors is a priority and specific milestones have been announced.
As can be seen from the Program, it sets out the vision for China’s development for 2016-2020 and continues the theme of innovation as the key to China’s growth. It formulates the development goals of the biotechnology industry — SEI, including the widespread use of genomics; large-scale development of personalized medicine and new drugs; and the creation of gene and cell banks. As part of the 13th FYP, the Ministry of Science and Technology issued a Biotechnology Development Plan, which outlines several goals and milestones to be achieved in China’s biotechnology industry by 2020:
• INCREASING THE ORIGINALITY OF BIOTECHNOLOGY.
The plan directs the Chinese biotech industry to focus on developing new technologies and products. Its mandate includes development goals for 20-30 leading new technologies, 30-50 key strategic new products, and 5-80 key technologies important for applications.

• CREATE AN INNOVATIVE PLATFORM FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY: The plan promotes the construction of biotechnology innovation centers specializing in environmentally friendly bio-manufacturing, research and development of innovative medicines, and biomedical engineering.

• STRENGTHENING BIOTECHNOLOGY INDUSTRIALIZATION: It provides guidance to accelerate the construction of biotechnology specialized high-tech parks, including the construction of 10-20 specialized biopharmaceutical parks and 5-10 specialized biotechnology parks, each with a production value of over 10 billion yuan.
The plan states that the scale of China’s biological industry should reach 8 to 10 trillion yuan ($ 1.2 to 1.6 trillion) by 2020.

MADE IN CHINA 2025
Made in China 2025 is a comprehensive government strategy document that sets out China’s plan to develop high-tech and high-value industries such as robotics, advanced information technology, aviation and new energy vehicles, and biopharmaceuticals and other medical technologies. A biotechnology-specific roadmap includes specific targets for licensing 3-5 new biotech drugs and related diagnostic reagents in advanced economies by 2020, plus commercializing 30-35 innovative drugs (of all types) by 2025, as well as a broader target: achieving by 2025 the innovative potential, production volume and international competitiveness of world-class pharmaceuticals.
BIOTECHNOLOGY PARKS
The main strategy for the development of the biotechnological industry is the construction of biotechnological parks. These large campuses are designed to house high-tech companies and are built around a common theme such as biopharmaceuticals or nanotechnology. In addition to national parks, almost every province has several local bio-industrial parks. Currently, there are more than 100 national high-tech and economic industrial parks in China in which biotechnology is involved, and more than 400 provincial-level biotechnological industrial parks. These parks provide infrastructure, talent, and business support for several co-located companies. For example, Suzhou Biobay in the Yangtze River Delta provides nanotechnology service platforms for 51 companies, and also offers regulatory filing and funding support.
STRENGTHENING OF THE REGULATORY MECHANISM
The National Medical Product Administration (NMPA) is the key regulatory body for drug approval and post-marketing surveillance in China. The drug approval function is jointly controlled by three key organizations under the NMPA:
• The Center for Drug Evaluation (CDE), which plays a leading role in evaluating the effectiveness and safety of new therapies. A technical review of clinical trial data is being conducted at CDE.
• The National Institute for Food and Drug Administration (NIFDC) is responsible for registration testing of investigational drug samples, and testing reports are sent to CDE to facilitate technical analysis.
• The Center for the Inspection of Food and Drug Administration (CFDI) conducts on-site inspections of clinical trials and manufacturing facilities (eg, GMP inspection) prior to final approval of the investigational drug.
One of the key hurdles that contributed to the slowdown in the drug approval process in China was significant capacity constraints at CDE, which had only about 100-120 staff until 2015, compared with more than 5,000 at the US Food and Drug Administration. (FDA). One of the key reforms in the NMPA since 2015 has been the acceleration of talent recruitment, which we believe is the basis for a more efficient drug approval system in China. According to the NMPA Commissioner, in 2014-2018, the number of CDE staff increased by about 7 times and reached 800 in 2018.
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18)
https://www.am.miraeasset.com.hk/insight/china_government_biotech/
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Biotechnology Innovation in Germany.
Political (programmatic) landscape.
Germany has several national industrial biotechnology policies and strategies, including:

National Bioeconomy Policy Strategy: Renewable Resources and Biotechnology Processes as the Basis for Food, Industry and Energy
The National Research Strategy «Bioeconomy 2030», and in particular the priority area of activity, no. 4 the right to use renewable resources in industry

Both of the above strategies led to the creation of Bioökonomierat, which aims to advise the government on the implementation of bioeconomy. Moreover, the German roadmap for biorefiners was created as part of the national action plan for the material and energy use of renewable raw materials.
Several German policies targeting research and development aspects also include an emphasis on industrial biotechnology:

Biotechnology is recognized as a key technology in the high-tech strategy of the German Federal Government, and among the areas of research of particular social and economic importance, bioeconomy is considered key in terms of “environmentally friendly and sustainable agricultural and industrial enterprises. production «.
The Biotechnologie 2020+ strategy, led by the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, promotes the convergence of biotechnology and process engineering to manage next generation biotechnology processes.
The Industrial Biotechnology Innovation Initiative was created as part of the aforementioned National Bioeconomy Strategy 2030 and provides funding totaling € 100 million for projects that foster the development of innovative industrial biotechnology products and processes for industrial applications.

In addition to this, the German policy framework provides opportunities for products derived from industrial biotechnology processes through public procurement schemes such as:
— Promoting innovation through public procurement
-Green government procurement.

Who is doing this?

Associations
German Association for the Biotechnology Industry (DIB) as part of the German Chemical Industry Association
Society of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology (DECHEMA)
Biotechnology Industry Organization of Germany (BIO Deutschland)
Industry Association White Biotechnology (IWBio)

Research and academic
An overview of research organizations including institutes, RTOs, and universities active in industrial biotechnology can be found here.
Clusters and networks
BioIndustry 2021 — German Clusters in Joint Action for Industrial Biotechnology, includes:
Biocatalysis2021 cluster
Clib2021 cluster
Cluster of biopolymers / biomaterials
Frankfurt Cluster CIB
Cluster IBB Netzwerk Gmbh

Initiatives
The aforementioned Industrial Biotechnology Innovation Initiative will, among other things, finance a Polymer Functionalization (FuPol) project for a total amount of 8 million euros until 2018. The aim of the FuPol project consortium is to further unleash the potential of enzymes for:
— make natural polymers such as lignin or cellulose suitable for use in construction chemistry
— to improve synthetic polymers for the textile industry

Eco-Metals is a cooperation project in the field of environmentally friendly mining, which is supported by approximately 5 million euros from the governments of France and Germany. The main focus of the project is on the bio-leaching of copper ores using microorganisms.
Services
Demonstration plant for the production of cellulosic ethanol in Straubing, Bavaria, in operation since July 2012 (Clariant Innovation Spotlight Sunliquid)
Lignocellulose Processing Plant in Leine — Focuses on demonstrating and optimizing the fermentation of C5 and C6 sugars, as well as the use of lignin for polyurethane foam and thermoplastics, and as a source of aromatics.
Center for chemical and biotechnological processes named after Fraunhofer (CBP) in Leine — Global Bioenergies’ second pilot plant for the conversion of biomass to isobutene
Lactic acid production — Uhde in Leipzig
The White Biotechnology Research Center at the Technical University of Munich offers technical facilities for research, training and technology transfer, including a screening laboratory in Garching and a pilot plant for white biotechnology in Weihenstephan.
Financing
State funding for research and development in the field of industrial biotechnology is organized by:
Federal Ministry of Education and Research — Funding research and innovation projects, from basic and applied research to pilot and demonstration projects.
Project Management Jülich (PtJ) — provides financing for projects related to the bioeconomy
The various funding bodies at the federal and state levels are listed here. Funding amounts cannot be quoted as they depend on the program and industry contribution.

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19) http://industrialbiotech-europe.eu/map/germany/
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Innovations in biotechnology in the CIS countries and in Russia.
Skolkovo Innovation Center
Skolkovo Innovation Center, July 2019
The Skolkovo Innovation Center is a high-tech business center in the Mozhaisky District of Moscow, Russia. [1] [2] [3] While historically Russia has been successful in science and technology, its lack of an entrepreneurial spirit has led to government intervention in patents and the non-proliferation of Russian technology companies beyond regional services. As corporations and individuals become “residents” of the city, and the proposed projects and ideas receive financial assistance [4]. For the first time Skolkovo was announced on November 12, 2009 by the President.
Calls for proposals are regularly held from:
-Industrial Biotechnology Innovation Initiative
— ERA-Net Industrial Biotechnology and ERA-Net EuroTransBio
-KMU-Innovative (SME Financing)
-BioEconomy International
Clusters
Moscow International Medical Cluster
Skolkovo includes five «clusters» in different directions. These include information technology, energy, nuclear technology, biomedicine, and space technology.

Biomedical Technologies
The strategic goal of this cluster is to create an ecosystem for biomedical innovation. To achieve this goal, the best practices of leading biotechnology and biomedical research centers were studied. More than 215 companies have joined the biomedical technology cluster.
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20) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skolkovo_Innovation_Center
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The largest universities in the United States are founded by billionaires. John Rockefeller, the richest man in history, founded the University of Chicago. Princeton was founded thanks to four wealthy landowners who provided the university with land and money. There are also contemporary examples. Michael Bloomberg — ex-mayor of New York, billionaire — donated $ 300 million to Johns Hopkins University. Bill Gates, CEO of Microsoft, founded the world’s largest private philanthropic foundation. The foundation has spent $ 1.5 billion in scholarships for talented students from national minorities and $ 250 million in school development in the United States. Are Russian oligarchs investing in science and education? Hardly ever. Roman Abramovich bought Chelsea Football Club. Alisher Usmanov bought the Arsenal football club. Suleiman Kerimov bought the football club Anji. Leonid Fedun bought the Spartak football club. The list, as you understand, goes on …
Wrong Wednesday …
But there are also more serious and fundamental problems. Professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MTI) Lauren Graham put it this way: Russian scientists are amazing at inventing and very bad at innovating, that is, introducing inventions into life. Russian scientists, for example, own two Nobel Prizes for developments in the field of laser technology. But now there is not a single Russian company that would occupy any significant place in the market of laser products and technologies. Electric bulbs were invented in Russia before Thomas Edison. In fact, Thomas Edison generally borrowed this idea from the Russian scientist Yablochkov. But then American companies took over this market. And no Russian company began to compete with them. Why? Graham believes that Russia has failed to build a society where the achievements of citizens could find a way out in economic development. All the country’s leaders, from the time of tsarism to the present, believed that the answer to the problems of modernization was technology itself, and not the socio-economic environment that promotes the development and commercialization of technologies. What is this Wednesday? What elements are inherent in it? Democratic form of government. A free market where investors need new technologies. Intellectual property protection. Control over corruption and crime. A legal system in which the accused has a chance to acquit himself, to prove his innocence.
There is still a lot of unfinished construction on the vast territory of Skolkovo. Naukosimulator or «city of the future»? Why Skolkovo was not completed in 5 years
But despite the rich historical experience, in Russia it is still customary to engage not in creating an environment for innovation, but in finding breakthrough points and magical solutions, which include the wonderful city of Skolkovo and the Rusnano corporation. Graham describes a conversation between a senior MIT manager and his Russian counterparts in 2010, before the high-profile investigations into Skolkovo. The American manager paid a lot of attention to the system of institutions and relations between universities, funds, investors in the development of innovations. His Russian colleagues constantly interrupted him, asking how to create the «best in the world» high technologies. At some point, the American broke down and exclaimed: «You want to get milk without a cow!»
21) http://nizinew.co.il/novosti-sajta/izobreteniya-v-stol-pochemu-v-rossii-net-innovacij.html
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It is difficult to add anything to this, except regret about the current state of innovation and science in general in Russia, in Ukraine and in the rest of the CIS republics.

Bibliography.
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ИЗРАИЛЬ И СИСТЕМА ПОДДЕРЖКИ ИННОВАЦИЙ НА ВСЕХ ЭТАПАХ РАЗВИТИЯ


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15) Biotechnology Innovation Organization

Biotechnology Innovation Organization


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19a) Industrial biotechnology in Germany, Europe. http://industrialbiotech-europe.eu/map/germany/
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25) A. Zabuty. Meet one of the world’s leading milk producers. http://ejwiki-pubs.org/wiki/%D0%90%D0%BB%D0%B5%D0%BA%D1%81%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B4%D1%80_%D0 % 97% D0% B0% D0% B1% D1% 83% D1% 82% D1% 8B% D0% B9% E2% 97% 8F% E2% 97% 8F% D0% 9F% D0% BE% D0% B7 % D0% BD% D0% B0% D0% BA% D0% BE% D0% BC% D1% 8C% D1% 82% D0% B5% D1% 81% D1% 8C_% D1% 81_% D0% BE% D0 % B4% D0% BD% D0% B8% D0% BC_% D0% B8% D0% B7_% D0% BC% D0% B8% D1% 80% D0% BE% D0% B2% D1% 8B% D1% 85_ % D0% BB% D0% B8% D0% B4% D0% B5% D1% 80% D0% BE% D0% B2_% D0% BF% D1% 80% D0% BE% D0% B8% D0% B7% D0 % B2% D0% BE% D0% B4% D1% 81% D1% 82% D0% B2% D0% B0_% D0% BC% D0% BE% D0% BB% D0% BE% D0% BA% D0% B0
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28) V. Zadorsky., O. Figovsky. TECHNOLOGICAL BUSINESS CLUSTERS — THE BASIS OF AN INNOVATIVE ECONOMY

КЛАСТЕРЫ ТЕХНОЛОГИЧЕСКОГО БИЗНЕСА – ОСНОВА ИННОВАЦИОННОЙ ЭКОНОМИКИ

29) V. Zadorsky. Secrets of invention. Means and methods for the birth of innovations. http://nizinew.co.il/novosti-sajta/sekrety-izobretatelstva-sredstva-i-metody-rozhdeniya-novacij.html

30) V. Zadorsky. The Breakers of Tradition or How to Train an Innovator. http://nizinew.co.il/novosti-sajta/nisprovergateli-tradicij-ili-kak-obuchit-innovatora.html

Иллюстрация: Biotechnology Innovation Organization — Wikipedia
en.wikipedia.org

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Alexander Zabuty

Ph.D, of Animal science, professor

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