THE EVOLUTION OF THE UNIVERSE AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF INFORMATION PROCESSES

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THE EVOLUTION OF THE UNIVERSE AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF INFORMATION PROCESSES

Romanenko V.N.1 , Nikitina G.V.2 .

1 North-Western Branch of Academy of Information Technologies in Education;
Gatchina, Leningrad district. Russia. Chairman of Council. Honored Scientist of Russian Federation, professor, Ph. D.

2 North-Western Branch of Academy of Information Technologies in Education;
Gatchina, Leningrad district. Russia. Vice-Chairman of Council. Honored worker of science and education of RAS, professor, Ph.D.

Abstract

Development of Universe run in direction of its increasing complexity. It is closely tied with the growth of its diversity and heterogeneity. One of the forms of complexity is its realization into the hierarchical structures. To facilitate the understanding of the processes of evolution in article is produced the refinement of concepts of information and various sharp transitions in informational structures. In this issue the relationship between the three main attributes of matter: substance, energy and information is described. The main stages of matter development on the Earth are studied in details. There are known several main stages of development matter on Earth: Non-animated matter, Living matter and Consciousness life. The start of new stage in this development is detected. Its appearance is connected with Individual-Collective thinking transition. The main possible ways of farther development of Life are various types of its symbiotic knit with technical tools. Possible known ways of farther development of Earth life are enumerated.

Keywords: Biosphere-Noosphere transition,Collective thinking, Consciousness,
Difference, Infoprocess, Information revolutions, Sameness entities,
Upgraded person,

1. Introduction: A brief historical overview

The most important behavior of the Universe is its fundamental inhomogeneity. The human mind cannot imagine a Universe at all points which would be strictly identical properties. There is also no possible to imagine that such super homogeneous system may exist since long, that it has no beginning and without end. The most simple question about how to detect this condition requires any probe tool to detect such system. Independent detecting tool is evidence of inhomogeneity of whole system. That is why the inhomogeneous and variability of Universe is the starting point of General philosophic analysis of the Nature. This analysis is tied with the principal fact that Universe consists of various parts which are in constant set of changes. The development of these changes is aimed in the direction of increasing complexity of the world. This complexity is manifested in the emerging of hierarchical structure of various entities and relations between them. In the development process number of Universe levels of the system growth. The number of different entities grows simultaneously. This process of continuous growth is accompanied by the opposite process. This second process is related to the fact that the increase in the number of objects on a structural level is associated with a decrease in the number of lower-level objects related to the emergence of a new entity.
Lets us illustrate this. One know the level on which the nucleus and electrons form atoms. Even if one will consider the difference in the isotopes of one element the number of different atoms does not exceed several hundred. At the next level of organization of the system of the world various group of atoms formed molecules. Each molecule of inorganic compounds composed of a limited number of atoms of about a hundred atoms in the periodic table. The number of such molecules is much greater than the number of atoms, but a lower structural level. The higher the level one goes up in the hierarchy, the greater the number and variety of entities he (she) detects at this level. At the same time, each entity at high levels can be composed of numerous combination of entities of the previous level. However, the number of new entities is much smaller than the number of them on the lower levels. So for example the number of animals on our planet is much smaller than the number of atoms, and not only on earth, but sometimes even in a separate body. Thus:

The hierarchical structure of the Universe based on two hierarchies of the opposite type. One of them is associated with the increasing complexity of the entities at the transition to higher levels on hierarchy. This is accompanied by an increase in the number of different entities at higher levels. The second one on the contrary associated with a decrease in the total number of each of the new entities at higher levels than the number of each entity for than at the lower levels.

One can say that conventional point is that once having arisen, the Universe is continuous developed. Traditional it is possible to speak about so called General development [1]. As it is written in this article, such theory can not study the stages of changes the nature in details. That is why some more simple or Canonical stages of developmental processes are discussed in the most part of cases. One of the important type of development of nature and its parts is Evolution. Some time this process is also defined as Individuation [1]. Evolution occurs continually during the development of any material system. It is more exactly determined process which is usually the main goal of numerous investigations. There is General agreement in the assertion that evolution runs in the direction of increasing the complexity of the Nature and enhance the variety of the emerging entities. It is evident that the study of growth of complexity close ties the theory of evolution with some General theories which describe the principal behaviors of Universe. Theory of system [2], theory of diversities [3-5] and theory which describes problems of homogeneity and uniform development [6,7] are few of them.
Studying the evolution of the Universe as a whole one must find any starting point for this process. For this purpose it is necessary to discuss several problems. Answering on these issues philosophers and scientists have consent that the Universe as we know it was created in a massive explosion that not only created the majority of matter, but the physical laws that govern our world. This is known as The Big Bang Theory [8]. This theory suppose that our Universe came into existence approximately 13.8 billion years ago. Before this moment all matter was compacted incredibility small globe with infinite density. It is called Singularity. What structure it has and what was before this time nobody still know. The topic of this article is associated with events much later. It was the time when our Earth was exited. For this reason, we will not go into discussion about this problem. One estimated this time as approximately 4.6 billions years. For our purpose quite enough to say that from the period from 13.8 billions years to this time the evolution of Universe run through several epochs. Accordingly [8] they are: Singularity (or Planck) Epoch, Inflation Epoch, Cooling Epoch, and Structure Epoch. The problems connected with this sequence are studied by cosmologists, physics, astronomers, and philosophers. For the tasks discussed in the main body of this issue this longterm period is valid for some basic definitions tied with information, its hierarchical structure and its connection with energy and substance. The evolution of Earth also is divided on several periods of time which also form a kind of hierarchy. We shall return toi this problem below.
The development of Universe comes with changing speeds. While from time to time in the properties of the earthly world occurs abrupt changes. They affect different levels of the hierarchy surrounding the humanity of the world. The results of these changes are often referred as revolutions, manifested in the material energy. informational, social and other properties of our environment. Since the mid-XXth century after the publication of the book [9] all cultural world attracted special attention on the study of changes in the field information. Now almost no one doubts, that in the last decade, the world is witnessing such changes [10,11]. For this reason, sharply increased interest in the study of information revolutions that have occurred since the inception of our planet. This period is usually identified several the biggest revolutionary changes [12,13]. Comparing the last two cited books one could see very different determinations what is called an information revolution. There are two evident sources of such discrepancy. They have similar base. The first one is result of absence any good, exact, and unambiguous definition of term information. The second one is the result of a similar lack definition of concept revolution. In both cases, this is due to the hierarchical structured of these terms. The search for the answer to these questions is the main goal of further research. Authors shall add one additional question to them. This question is connected with the analysis of the development of ideas about information, from the ancient epoch to the present day. Unfortunately, the limited amount of this article, does not allow to consider this question.

2. Concept of information and its complex structure

An intuitive understanding of some phenomenon describing the transfer and saving of various information intuitively felt by humanity in prehistoric times. However the term Information entered in scientific terminology at the beginning of a New time. The introduction of a new term usually identifies a very broad area of phenomena. Further studies and observations allow us to clarify and expand the understanding of the meaning of the new concepts [14]. Since the first half of the XX-th century the study of the phenomenon of information was an enormous amount of researches. There was emerged even a whole branch of science called computer science. Despite this clarity in understanding the meaning associated with the term information is still there. Despite this clarity in understanding the meaning associated with the term information is still there. There is known a huge amount of reviews and the various books devoted to this problem. One of the best of them written in last years is [15]. In this book and also in our article [16] the main explanation of problem with understanding the sense of the concept information is connected with the fact that information actually represents a complex concept which has hierarchical structure. A decisive step in view of this fact were made in [17]. Its author came from several previous investigations which were in detailed discussed in well known book by Gregory Bateson [18]. It is frequently repeated that in two places of this book he defined information in such words: “Information is the difference that makes a difference”. This is a very good and expressive definition. However, in reality it is not quite exactly repeats the words by Gregory Bateson [19]. In fact, the exact words on the page 452 sound like:

When you enter the world of communication, organization, etc., you leave behind that whole world in which effects are brought about by forces and impacts and energy exchange. You enter a world in which «effects»— and I am not sure one should still use the same word—are brought about by differences. That is, they are brought about by the sort of «thing» that gets onto the map from the territory. This is difference.

It is not difficult to see the fundamental difference here. G. Bateson clearly indicated that the creation of information requires some energy. In fact the same wrote N. Wiener in [20]:

Information is neither matter nor energy, but it needs matter for its embodiment and energy for its communication.

In [14,15] the fact that substance, energy, and information are the three main attribute (fundamental categories) of matter is discussed in detail and strictly justified. One can say that substance is responsible for quantity of any material essence, energy for its transformations (dynamics), information, and reflects its order (form) [14]. In the set of article which are discussed in [17] various authors independently found relationships between substance (matter), energy, and information [21-24]. Despite these principal issues discussed devoted to find the exact meaning of concept information are still not finished. The last hundred years, introduced into the discussion and studied many properties of information that characterize its quantitative dimension, the process of transferring and copying the role of the observer, semantic meaning, etc. In recent decades it has become clear that the lack of single definition due to the complexity and hierarchical structure this concept. As it was noted above only author [17] made a decisive step in this problem solution. He is in practice for the first time used a new name for the lower basic level of the information hierarchy. Accordingly with definition given by Bateson [19] he called the simplest action which gives the first step in describing any order of entities as Difference. This name emphasizes that the allocation of a

Figure 1. The triangle which describes the interaction between matter, energy
and information []19].

new object is always associated with the establishment of its differences with other objects and the environment. All possible interactions are presented on Figure 1. On this figure authors replaced numerical expression according with Bremmerman [22] on results studied by Ershov [23, 24]. In [19] its author also posted a sketch in which are reflected connections between behaviors of the real world its reflections in human mind (Figure 2). On the sides of the depicted triangle caused the names of the scientists that first described the corresponding relations. These works are well known and therefore cites to them are not given here in the reference list.

Figure 2. The triangle which describes reflections of Nature in the human
brains.

As was written above the term Difference denotes the lower level of Information hierarchy. Such a definition immediately focuses ones attention to the fact that the first step in which the individual understands the world should be Operation of comparison. In this operation one compares various properties which characterized by two or more entities. Let us take in account that each operation of comparison is based on availability of the third – so called Measuring entity, or Subject. From this it follows that in the simplest case, the information associated with the presence of no less than three independent entities. In the simplest case one can say about situation Two-to-one comparison instead of Many-to one. In practice this does not say that believing understanding of the situation by itself is evident. By the by perhaps it is for this reason that the majority of instructional strategies in the area of PC-science never starts from a study of the comparison operation.
In their everyday life all humans exist in the system of constant flows in their brains various flows of different data. In the simplest form each of these flows can be represented in the form of the triad (Figure 3). According [23, 24] we call this chain of data transformations as Infoprocess. The term Information process is also used in [25] This interesting, but largely controversial book actually considered some similar ideas, although the authors used the terms and justifications which are not standard. Each Infoprocess has one or more Sources on one end, and any Client or Receiver on the final end. Both terms: Client and Receiver are spread for refer as non animated so animated material objects. Yet in principle it is more convenient to divide them. In this case Client is any Living object and Receiver would be any Non-living (frequently Special technical) object (or Instrument). A set of data moves from Source to Object. This flow is usually denoted as Signal. There are known two main types of Signals. The first one links independent from anyone will. Shortly it is possible to say they have no special goal. Thermal radiation, the sound of waterfall are few examples of this kind of signals. The second type of Signals have any goal. Some of them are

Figure 3. Triad form of infoprocess.

Non-addressed. A cry of pain, the bell are few of them. Yet there is widely spread the other group of signals, which has one ore more specific recipients. Phone calls, various messages, medical recommendations are few of them. These Signals one traditional distinguishes as Communications. All signals incoming to Receiver arrives at the Receptor or Sensory organs of animals (Figure 4). The similar transformation chain exists on the output of each source.

Signal →Receptor→ Filter →Memory

Figure 4. Transformation obtained data at the receiver entrance.

It is well known that in the Non-living entities of Universe a huge number of data are stored for a long time. Distribution breeds in the mountains, skeletons of fossil animals, scratched figures of primitive people are typical examples of a plenty of historical facts. They can be stored for a very long time. Moreover, in case of their detection, they are not always able to be deciphered and understood. From a cultural point of view they are a group of Mind-independent data or Source properties. By if signal this data into the human brain, where they are converted and displayed in the form of neural loops. All received data human brains performs classification and stores all results in Personal memory. As a result of a long evolutionary process, humans could not only store in their memory their personal experience, but also use additional information which the individual got by communication channels from their neighbors. This has dramatically expanded the abilities for transfer referral from person to person. It was then that along with Personal Knowledge of the individual, socialized collective Group Knowledge appeared [26]. It is at first be noted that for the issues discussed in this article that in contemporary scientific practice for all these types of data and signals use the same General term – Information. Despite of understanding the ambiguity of this term its real diversification is still absent. Yet for our goals to use of such terminology is extremely inconvenient.

We shall denote as Information all data which are transmitted as signal and as a result reflected in Memory. We also suppose that reflected data are always stored in Memory.

There is principal difference between reflection of data in non-animated and animated matter. In non-animated matter the active reaction is absent. Higher animals can partially control his activity as a reaction on reflected signals. Such reaction is a base of animals’ behavior. One can say that:

Any behavior is a means of adaptation to the external situation [27].

Man unlike the animals has a mind. Without going into details, which are described in [16,25] we will call further the information, which is processed and stored in the human brain as Personal Knowledge. In this case one can say:

Personal knowledge or brain-dependent human information is a set of external data which are reflected and processed in human brain.

All other necessary denotations are clear from the previous paragraph. The second novelty which we are going active introduce below is accounting in the wording and in the analysis of the fact that information and a number of other concepts have a hierarchical structure.
Discussion devoted to determination of the nature of information have a long story. Practical all the XX-th century the main attention to this problem was tied with signaling processes and counting the value of transmitted information. Of course, at this time appeared the works which have analyzed other aspects of the concept of information. The most well known of them are [28,29]. In is necessary to take in account that in this books the term Information is used for the Personal Human Knowledge. Moreover all these works never took in account various details of connection between studied problems and hierarchical structure on information. As it was written above, the obligatory presence of not less than five hierarchical levels of information was first made in [15]. (See also [16]). Despite of this the full understanding the fact that information has complex structure is still out of detailed study. Let us illustrate this by following example.
Authors [25] spoke about semantical sense of Information (Personal knowledge).They wrote that for instance the sound of thunder does not posses any information. There is clearly a substitution of the concept information and semantic meaning of the directed message (communication). This can be explained by the lack of a clear definition of what the authors mean by information. More clearly the unreasonableness of the approach of these authors is evident on the page 28 of their book [25]. On this page the reader can find an example an analysis of information connected with detecting the semantic sense of the phrase written in Russian. Similar examples and arguments one can find in many other items. That is why we decided to model this situation with the help of any sentence written in English. So see the text on Figure 5a. Here is a phrase, which consists of 15 letters, and three spaces between words. Let us anybody read this phrase. means he (she) sees the letters and compares the signal received to his (her) brain with an existing there “dictionary”. Certainly the semantical sense of this phrase immediately became clear for each person which understands English. This words are any communicative signal. Its may have any concrete receiver or its does not have a specific addressee. On the next parts of Figure 5 authors have done actions in accordance with the recommendations of [25]. These actions were accidental

(a) The supper is over

(b) hTe prspue is orve

(c) esippheeutrvros

Figure 5. Three possible combinations of the same 15 English letters.

movement letters on Figure 5a. This mixing of letters one can do in several ways. In the case on Figure 5b the letters were mixed in each word separately. On the Figure 5c all spacing between words are removed. Furthermore, uppercase letter T is replaced by a lowercase one. As result on Figure 5c one can see a line of 15 letters without spaces between them. It is possible to invitee some other ways to create new text line. For instance there is possible to take over free spaces between words as specific letters and insert them randomly in a line on Figure 5c. However this is not essential as the main conclusions can be drawn already on the analysis of data shown in Figure 5.
Let us again analyze cases (b) and (c) on Figure 5. One can not find on this lines the semantical sense, which there was on Figure 5a. Yet it is possible to say that on this lines the letters of Latin alphabet are used. For this the visual signal of the text must be transformed in the brain of a reader (observer) into relevant information. To make this possible in the brain of the reader should have an appropriate thesaurus (dictionary). If the reader is is qualified enough, he (she) can list the languages which could be a coded message. The number of different alphabets used by mankind is sufficiently large. Therefore, it is likely that 15 unknown letters of the alphabet (Armenian or Georgian for example) will not allow the reader to determine the source language. Moreover, an illiterate savage, all may not be familiar with letter writing. For him these lines are just a set of incomprehensible characters. On the contrary quite a skilled reader, looking at the line (and) and seeing the first word of three letters with a capital T can be concluded that most likely it has to do with the letters of the English alphabet. Qualification of reader (his/her thesaurus) some time can allow to obtain additional information. The probability of its retrieval from text increases with the number of letters in the lines. So if in a group of 40 letters never will meet ö, or ä, or ß, it can be argued that the original text is not associated with the German language. On the contrary, if among the symbols ł, it can be assumed that the reader is dealing with the Poland alphabet.
If the reader is expert in printing he(she) can detect additional information from the font used to create the text on Figure 5. As example of such operation let us read a short piece of The Hound of the Baskervilles by Arthur Conan Doule. These are the words of Sherlock Holmes:

There is as much difference to my eyes between the leaded bourgeois type of a Times article and the slovenly print of an evening half-penny paper.

This example shows that a qualified expert can extract a lot of additional facts from the data, which at first glance may look meaningless. Imagine now that the text on the Figure 5a is not read by the user but it was red out loud a certain speaker. In this case, the observer usually receives additional information about the mood of reading and language skills, etc. These data is the base of so called Aestetic information [29]. Briefly:
In any signal contains a lot of facts, which one needs to be able to extract.
Speaking about the information, which it is possible to extract from the set of the data there is useful to recall have circulated to the librarians of the approval:
In order to get a good answer one would be able to ask a good question.

This means that:

The ability to extract all possible facts from data associated with the ability to ask the right questions.

On this basis it can be argued that:

The complete lack of information (facts) in the signal is possible only when it is impossible to formulate a question associated with reflection of these data in the receiving device.

The authors know of no example where such a situation would be implemented in reality. This effectively means that in the world there is no entity here wasn’t a certain amount of information. Here it is useful to return to the aforementioned example of [25] dedicated the sound of thunder. Such information, unlike the authors of this book exist. To primitive man it might be evidence of the wrath of the gods. Yet for modern man the sound speaks only of the meteorological environment.
To finish this section authors say that breaking complex term Information on parts allows one to divide it into objective and subjective fractions. Objective fraction is brain-independent. It consists of different data, signals and communicative messages. Various hierarchical levels in this fraction may be assigned different names. The most simple of them one can call Difference [17]. The brain-dependent reflection of objective signals in receiver system we prefer still denote as Information. In such set of definitions Information is any subjective property of receiver (observer). In communication the source of signal frequently is connected with personal behaviors of message author. That is why the message sent by animated matter may have a subjective component too. Detailed classification of all possible situations in this area are out of the field of studied in thus item problems.

3. Changing of entities: Its various modes

Each entity in Nature has a beginning and an end. This means that the entity changes during its existence. To change can any property of each entity. Its location, sizes, and form are the main of them. Accordingly to Leibniz law [30] one know there are no two entities in th World which are fully identical. It is well known people need to operate with sets of entities which are only Partially identical. It is convenient to denote such group of entities as Sameness one [31]. All Sameness entities change during their existence according the similar specific laws. One can say these laws are reflect the principal behaviors of aging process of any type of entities. We denote this process as Dynamical changing of entity or more simple Dynamics. It is easy to understand that this is a more General form of what in biology is called Life span. Factually:

Entity dynamics describes its aging process.

Dynamics is characterization of a single sample of any type of entity. Yet the entity as any group changes for a long time with surrounding environment. Changing such entity as a lorry, TV-receiver, or biological species are few of examples of such mode of changing. The modes of changing various types of entities and Universe as whole are described in many items [8,13,14]. One of the high quality brief narrate of these processes one can find in [1]. This author describes the development as common property of various systems and their parts. The Universe in such analysis is considered simply as the most common of the known systems. In opposite to this Evolution (more generally, Individuation) in [1] is describe occurs continually during the development of any material system. It means that:

Evolution is understood as particular mode of General process of system development.

As it is clearly said in [1]. Evolution acquires results of environmental impact on developing processes. At a result evolution leads to increasing uniques in particular entities and phenomena. That is why the laws of development must be the most important part of all theories studied Universe and its parts. As was written above our Universe begins from singularity. After this it begins to continuous expand. This process is directed toward increasingly complexity [1,8]. One can say that the development of Universe is a process of refinement via various possible information constrains [1]. During this process some principal informational constrains are fixed. During the farther development stage by stage new information constrains are emerged. The sequence of these stages can be recorded using the formal schema of the brackets [1] (Figure 6).
On the schema of Figure 6 each is created by all previous ones. The stage N is certainly contains with other possibilities in the previous stage (N-1), and so on. More developed stages are emerged on the base of previous stages by the acquiring new information. The new information may content new forms of information. Order, orientation of the parts, the sequence of various entities are few of them.

{stage 1 {stage 2 {stage 3}}}…} …..} ….

Figure 6. The sequence of successive stages of Universe development, which is
based on the use of formalism proposed in[1].

The development of Universe so as the development of its parts creates hierarchical structures. (See above). On each level of hierarchy there is any restricted stock of possible options or resources. Process of level development gradually exhausts these possibilities [31]. It is well known that in this case the development passes through three steps which is possible to call: Immature step, Mature step, and Senescent step [1]. The number of emerging along these steps new information may be described with the help of S-shape curve, which is named Logista [32]. Modern theory of development has to take in account the fact that developmental processes on each hierarchical level must be described of their own logistical curve. It is excellent known that the starting part of Logista may be described as typical exponent. That is why many theories prefer simplification analyze of developmental processes considering them as completely exponential.
Full description developmental process in the Universe is tied with a huge number of various facts and ideas. Such material is out of the goal of this article. In addition to [1,11-18,26] some useful new ideas in this field one can find in [33]. Our farther discussion will be devoted to issues relevant to the development problems on our plant only. It is evident that the main basic stages of development of matter on Earth are:

…{non-animated matter {animated matter {consciousness life}social life}…

Figure 7. The sequence of successive stages of matter development on Earth.

Each new action produced changes in this sequence consists of series other actions which are less cardinal than previous. The division of changes on much smaller changes is reduced to emerging of hierarchy of values with various modes of changing. The sequence of such diminishing values is very high. That is why it is hardly possible to offer desirable amount of necessary terms. Nevertheless, there is known a suitable group of words from which one can build the desired set of concepts. Upheaval, Coup, Jump, Shift, Slip, Spring are few of them. All these terms are needed to describe processes of changing. As emerging of new hierarchical level, so in simple informational process one observes transformation of data, facts et cetera from the source to the receiver. Both in the source, so in the receiver input and output data (facts, observations) remain unchanged. All changes in information are connected with information transfer: Emission, Spreading, Expansion, Coping, Reflection. That is why if anybody wants to discuss whether the information has defined goals [15, 26], he (she) must speak about process of information transmission and communication only. Data stored in information source and memory can be changed exclusively in corruption processes and aging.
As it was written in Introduction the General development of Universe is run in direction of developed of its growing complexity. On must remember that the Universe is experienced and phenomenal yet, it is not completely understand. At the same tine one can say:

The complexity of Universe is very high, yet it is possible to build several models which help the people to understand and study the many behavior of it.

According with ideas written in [1] it is necessary to divide Universe or World and Nature. One must understand that:

Nature is any construct which is build by humankind for better understanding the Universe.

Moreover, when one says that Nature has a hierarchical structure he (he) needs to understand that:

The hierarchy is some information model allows one to regulate the observable reality.

So it is necessary to say that:

As Hierarchies, so Holones are some complex informational models, which are emerging as a result of a relatively simple operations, such as Differentiation, Ordering, Measuring,Classification et cetera. That is why there is possible to detect several types of Hierarchical structures [34].

Given all that was written above one can say that the development of the Universe starts from singularity [1,8]. After this the complexity of Universe has increased in the course of its development. Yet there are some heavy problems, which are not in the are of main task of this article. The first problem is connected with question what was at the starting moment of Universe development and what forced the start of this process? The second principal question is tied with the problem of inheritance of characteristics of various parts of Universe i.e. various entities? The principle of causality prompts one the idea that:

All past characteristics and events has to be present in any current entity and occasion.

As a result, the number of factors affecting on new entities and different events progressively increases with time. Situations in which small causes can produce large effects are known as Butterfly effect. In popular form this idea is narrated in seminal story by Ray Bradbery named: A Sound of Thunder. However, in everyday life the events which are removed in time and distance rarely affect on the current phenomenon. This does not mean that the impact of such events on everyday life is completely excluded. This affects are very weal usually. In addition, from time to time prehistory suddenly manifested in everyday life. Biology has accumulated enough examples, when the sleeping memory of the body suddenly manifests itself through many generations. Currently, the main focus is on the study of the nature of the interactions between different levels of the hierarchy of matter. One of the perspective directions here can be considered soon, given the different speed of top-down interactions between different levels of the hierarchy [25]. Yet our farther intention is to study various modes of changing the information structure of matter in Earth conditions. If anybody wants to anticipate newly emerging events and occasions, he (she) needs to develop techniques to assess vague tendencies while they are becoming liminal and beginning to show serious activity [35].

4. Different ways of changing the hierarchy of information systems.

Figure 7 represents three main changes in matter evolution on our planet. Factually this sketch reflects two most important huge changes in the Earth history. They are emerging of Life and emerging of Consciousness. In these both cases, the most part of previously accumulated in the previous developmental period changes relatively quickly led to new qualitative changes in the Earth structure. One traditionally treats such changes as sharp one. However, if one wants to estimate the period of these changes in calendar time units, it appears that these overhauls took many thousands of years. In these and similar situations, it is necessary to understand, that the development of the Universe is uneven. Yet some times in this slow run arise any crises. At this relatively short periods all accumulated in the previous time changes create radical rebuilding of matter hierarchy. According [36] such radical overhauls there is possible to call Creative Destruction [25].

Speaking about Life and Consciousness one must determine what is meant by these terms. To give such definitions is very difficult, if at is possible indeed. The reader can study the table of contents in [33]. On the conference which reports are collected in this issue some are devoted to the problem of searching answer on question What is Life? Nobody can give necessary clear answer. This is easily seen just by reading the titles of the reports. The situation is similar with the definition of the second of the mentioned above term Consciousness.
In such cases, is one usually confines to the careful enumeration of the properties characterizing a particular concept. Yet for the considered situations in would be enough to say that:

As the Life, so the Consciousness are the basic attribute of matter, which are emerges after the matter reaches a certain level of complexity.

This understanding puts the notions Life and Consciousness in the same set of basic properties of matter as Substance, Energy and Information. The difference between them follows from the fact, that the last three attribute are common to all states of matter, and the first two occur only after the matter at a certain time in a certain place, acquires the desired level of complexity.
Three basic states of matter on Earth: Non-Animated, Animated, and Consciousness differ not only in their complexity. No less important arise due to their different complexity are various types of response of different entities to external impacts. As it was mentioned above type Non-animated matter react on the external impacts in passive way. In opposite to this animated matter has active reaction on these impacts [25,37]. This reaction can cause substantial alterations to the surrounding inanimate environment. The Great Oxidation Event [38] is an excellent example of such process. In this process new form of animated matter produced a plenty of free oxygen in Earth’s atmosphere. This oxygen gave the opportunity to develop new biological species. At the same time, it has sharply limited the ability of previous life forms. A number of other effects of the same type described in [39]. The emergence of Consciousness, i.e. appearance of humankind produced a fundamentally new type of active influence of biological species on inanimate matter. Humans are the only known species, which pre-plans its activity making it a definite goals. These goals of course are not always clearly understood. Moreover, even a well-worded goal does not always lead to desirable results. However, human activity leads to such huge changes of the surrounding world, which in the previous era of the Earth’s existence there was no question.

Despite of having formulated the clear goals the ways of human activity are subject to General development of Universe or more simple to General laws of evolution. For example, the Neolithic revolution began in different places of our planet almost at the same time, which is great, but it is a certain time interval [25, 40]. In short:

In the case of a humankind one at first encounters a two-steps process of the development of the World. The first step is the effect of the laws of evolution in the collective consciousness of humanity. At the second stage the collective consciousness of humanity or its individual groups formulates and implements the activity. This activity can have an arbitrary component.

The presence of arbitrary component allows various groups of mankind to accept different strategies of their development. Competition between groups of mankind have adopted different strategies allows to intensify the process of finding optimal paths of development. This not only increases the complexity of the structure of mankind but also significantly accelerates the processes of its development. At the same time, it is necessary to consider that the beam of possible trajectories of the development is limited to the General laws of evolution that govern the processes of the first stage.
A two-steps scheme of development in the Universe arose after the appearance of mankind, changes the structure of the earthly world much more deeply and intensely, than one-step, which is associated with the emergence of life on the Earth. These problems are actively discussed at present. So we have no intention for more detail discussion on this issue. To highlight the Transformation of Nature caused by these processes, we will use the term Revolution. This type of transformation is more radical and complex than those types, which were mentioned briefly in Section 3.

 

5. Beginning of the new Information Revolution

General laws of evolution says one about more and more complexity of Universe and its parts. The complexity in turn is reflected in the growing diversity of entities at each hierarchical level of the World around us [3-5]. Increasing number of various entities is important not only from the point of view of increasing various Objects with other properties. A variety of entities is associated with an increase in the number of possible ways of development. This in order causes competition between different entities. The growth of complexity various entities on any level of hierarchy is due to creating of new combinations of their consistent elements at lower levels of hierarchy of matter [3-5]. It is possible to say more simply that :

The growth of complexity can occur through the exchange of properties between entities in the process of their interaction.

Thus, the growing diversity of the properties and processes of mutual exchange of properties between entities help to accelerate development processes. This is particularly noticeable in the analysis of the processes of evolution of life on our planet. In study of these processes it is important to consider the nature of the interaction between entities. There are well-known several vivid examples of the role of such interactions. One of them is the emergence of sexual reproduction, which accelerate adaption and developing processes of any species.
The increasing complexity of the species and its structures are knit with the division of their functions. Simultaneously with this occurs partial distribution of functions, which are manage the bodies. The process of complication usually pass a few standard steps. At the same time one observe the emergence of complex chains of inter specific interactions between various species. A good theory of these effects one can find in well-known book by P. Kropotkin [41]. It is not difficult to notice that at higher levels of biological development acceleration of evolution and, more often occurs due to the interaction between different species than due to the complexity of their structure.
An important property of highly organized forms of life is the need to anticipate the changes of their environment. One usually denotes the search for forecasting as Expectation, Foreseeable Future, or Probabilistic Prognosis [25]. As result of emerging of Consciousness humans much better than animals predict future situations. They also can try to find reasonable explanations for the previous observed events. Human results in such studies increase with evolution of humankind. Modern people can give predictions and explain events more distance in time and more complex in nature than their ancestors.
The emergence of Consciousness is tied with human brain only. The main success that has allowed to arise the mind is the ability of a person to maintain the information collected by other people and keep it not only in the brain but also it can be independent stored on various tools prepared from the different materials, which are produced from non-animated matter. It is supposed, that these opportunities arose as a result of the emergence of new forms of exchange of data between people. In other words it occurred as a result data interchange between people. One can say it was a result of emerging Communication processes. This was consequence of a long evolutionary process of developing human brain. It takes several thousand years. The last stage of this brain transformation was finished approximately 45.000 years ago [42]. After the humans received the ability to store large amounts of information in independent external media, it expand their abilities for transfer referral from person to person. It was then that along with Knowledge Personal  of the individual, socialized collective Group Knowledge appeared. The Group Knowledge may be treated as averaged sum of all Personal Knowledge of participants, which take part in the information exchange [25]. The main conclusion of this long term historical process one can express as:

Emerging of Consciousness was typical informational Creative destruction, which created new stage of development matter on our planet. Communication processes in the humankind are the main moving force of its evolution after this.

Communication exchange between various individuals of any species different species was emerged in the germ before described coup [41,43]. However, only after the emergence of the Consciousness it became the main driving force developing of Life and Society on the Earth. That is why the study of all possible changes in communication systems of humankind is one of the most important fields of interest for some last decades. At this time investigations of communication processes are very active. Major changes in this area is usually called the Information revolution. The Communication process has a triad form. Its General sketch is reflected on Figure 3. It is clear that changes of this process may be tied with any part of triad. This means one must divide Information revolutions into three main marks: Revolution of Data sources, Revolution in Transfer systems (Signaling), and Revolution in receivers and storages. All these marks were serious studied and described [9–13, 44].
One need to pay attention to the fact that usually all revolutions, including information are associated with time of sharp changes in the society. In fact, the process of social and other important social changes is much longer. For instance the Revolution in the Netherlands lasted approximately 80 years. People frequently told about the revolution in computing linking it to the date of invention of the first computers. Yet the first known mechanical computer tool, so called Antiktera Mechanism was build at Ancient time [45]. Some other mechanical computers emerged later this time before the first electronic computer was created in XX-th century [46, 47]. It is not very hard to find many other similar examples. That is why one can say:

What is commonly called Revolution is usually the final act of terminating a sharp jump in long-accumulated small steps to solve any problem.

Let we now return to the problem of increasing complexity, from the evolution of life on earth. Authors refer to the stage where life has already appeared, but humanity, because the consciousness has not yet arisen. Increasing of complexity of living entities consists of several steps. They main of them are: growing the size of body with the subsequent complication of the internal structure. This way is not very perspective. The other way is cooperation of similar entities [43], merging different creatures together, various forms of Mutual aid [41]. All these steps are investigated and described in details in several biological sciences. Their study and discussion of these processes are out of the area of this issue. For our purposes it is important only to emphasize the fact, that all transformations of this plan are based on a combination and modification of the properties of living matter. Usage for the purposes of improving the structure and increasing complexity of the possibilities of the species is known only for some special cases. This use of shells of dead creatures to protect individuals of other species, as well as the use of the stones to higher primates as the simplest tools. These and several other examples can be considered as exceptions to the General rule.
Emerging of human Consciousness was a result of evolution of human brain [25]. In the end, new capabilities of the brain allow people to monitor simultaneously a large number of actions. As a consequence the person had the opportunity to create and use tools and weapons. This at the same time got people a possibility to accumulate and systematize the experience of different community members and previous generations [25]. This, in turn, helped to create and to use for practical activities increasingly sophisticated tools and, later, very sophisticated machines and technology. About time people started continuously use various technical devices. For many centuries no man can long time exist without a wide range of different devices. Utensils, scissors, pencil, vehicle this is only a very short list of tools, without which one can not imagine every day life of modern peoples. One can say that human interaction with tools and other technical means are a distant analogue of symbiotic relationships in Nature. However, in the case of symbiosis and other types of mutual aide almost always benefit all participants of relations. In the present case, only the person has the benefit. Yet a tool or machine relate to the world of Non-animate matter. They are passive participants in relationships. Moreover, they are created by people or groups with the aim to significantly improve opportunities using their people. Professor Josef Feigenberg called such situation Upgraded person [48].
People, of course, can be in a symbiotic relationship with animals too [48]. However, the device of the Non-animate matter are the basic set of tools, which enhances its inherited features. Moreover, a symbiotic relationship with animals is gradually displaced by the improvement of technical devices. For example, animal traction transport were step by step supplanted by steam engines, and then internal combustion engines and electric motors. However, more important: only the person is in such relationship with the devices from Non-ananimate matter. As a result, on the Earth was established region called Technosphere. It originated was the result of the conscious activity of people. Reasonable human activity affects only the appearance of the areas with the use of technical devices. Mine development, ploughed the steppe, and much more are also the result of the actions of rational beings. According Vernadsky [49] this part of our planet one called Noosphere.

The emergence and development of the Noosphere is caused by humankind activity. In simplified form, this development one can represent in the form of two loosely coupled trajectories. The first of them is usually treated as the main one. It is trajectory of creating of new type of machines, designing of technologies, searching new sources of energy, building an so on. The second trajectory is devoted to the improvement of communications, the development of methods for data storing information and the processes of their transmission. Important innovations on this line of development is associated with the concept of Information revolutions. The main alterations on this way are the appearance of speech, invention of writing, book printing, wireless communications, film and television. It is not difficult to see that all of these achievements are associated with communicative processes. At the same time the creation of the means of preserving the accumulated knowledge and various data. A synthesis of collective and meaningful experience of humanity in the form of science and religious and moral standards required not only of language but also of creating ways to store and find information. This is the key points on the way the appearance of these archives, libraries, museums et cetera.
It is not difficult to see that all these revolutionary changes did not affect the fundamentals of the creative process. Of course in this way was also important milestones. Their examples include the creation of mathematical symbols and operations, the development of directories, dictionaries, etc. Even in ancient times was a well-known simple machines and computing devices [45, 50]. However, for many centuries, the automation was more fun or individual achievements, but the main vector of development. One of the most important steps in changing this situation was the division of labor in the creative process. It can be linked with the activities of American inventor Thomas Edison and the French writer Alexander Dumas [51]. An even more important step was the emergence of modern computing [47]. Ultimately, since the second half of the XX-th century begins the merging together of both trajectories of development of the Noosphere. As a result, in the present time is the question of the development of complex automated systems and even almost independent from humans robots. This lights together before almost independent of the trajectories of development of the Noosphere and is a major revolutionary upheaval of the present. It can be argued that now mankind is in the initial area of this coup. Most likely it may lead to new stage of development matter in terms of Figure 7.
Simultaneously, starting around the last decade of the last century there was a rapid establishment of a global network of information exchange. One can say that the network (Global information sphere or more exactly Global Cybrsphere) [52] was also a part of the tunable Noosphere. Author of [52] claims that this coup can be called: Biosphere-Noosphere transition. Our point this term is very convenient. Yet the reader has to take in account that in [52] and many other issues term Noosphere is treated as Global Information field, which unites its participants into a single unit. The person at this time must partially lose their individuality. There are known several terms for describing this idea, Some authors speak about Global or Super-brain (See for instance [53]). There are known some other terms. In all these cases the term Noosphere is limited only by the processes of working with data. This is very important and interesting problem. Its study lets one to go to the first attempts of describing possible interplanetary contacts. Yet authors of Noosphere idea: Vladimir Vernadsky and Pierre Teilhard de Chardin [49] include in this part of Earth not only the process of collective thinking and the emergence of new and more complex forms of the Consciousness, but the material results of Consciousness activity. The reader has to take in account that authors of this issue adhere to this kind of definition. The period of active affect pf humankind on the development of Earth is often called The Antropocene [54].

Biosphere-Noosphere transition at first order attracts people’s attention to problems of collective thinking, and also space voyages and interplanetary contacts. At the same time, in this field one can detect some others important problems. One of them appears at present time very much. We mean the problem of the basic intellectual skills of the person.
Let us explain this on the example of arithmetic. It is well known that in ancient times the ability to produce simple arithmetic operations required special skills. The transition to positional writing system of numbers, the introduction of zero, the invention of the symbolic mathematical record of actions gradually led to the fact, which is the beginning of a new time. At new tome any educated person freely carried out not only simple mathematical operations, but also know how to calculate percentages. to use tables, etc. More recently, to go to the store or to buy a ticket to the theater it was very difficult without mastering basic arithmetic. Such actions were taught in elementary school. In good schools were taught the techniques of mental arithmetic. After the advent of calculators, the need of this knowledge virtually disappeared. The average modern man often forgets the multiplication table as they rarely use it.
A similar situation can be traced in many other daily activities. The question is why is good to know the properties of the city as is in your hands is a simple Navigator. The system of automatic reminders often allows a person not to think about the schedule of his (her) actions. These functions assume the gadget. Anyone can easily expand this list. Many of the media are sounding the alarm about this. Often there are concerns that a modern person becomes stupid and is dependent on electronic technology. These fears are largely justified. At the same time, many of the lost skills are replaced by new. Knowledge of different programs, management of modern tools, the ability to formulate the problem of finding information on the Internet are only few of them. The history of human culture knows about such shifts necessary knowledge in earlier times. Now not every woman is able to cook a tasty meal or to put a patch on torn clothing. Not every man knows how to use razor, to sharpen a knife, or solder the hole in the metal pan. The ability to navigate by the stars, build a campfire, choose a grass, that stops the blood from his scratched hands, the vast majority of civilized countries the average citizen has lost all these practical skills is useless. People of the late XIX-th century was also dependent on many technical devices, as the current person from the electronic equipment. It means that, in principle, the crisis of modernity is not new. The novelty is that the crisis is connected with changes in the mental, not the physical human activities. Its study is one of the priorities that must be addressed in the era of the beginning of the new global changes to the ways of human development.

6. Conclusions
One of the most important laws of Nature should be considered its development towards more and more increasing complexity. With regard to global the history of our planet the main stages in its development is described in three fundamental stages (Figure 7). In the first stage the Earth consisted only of Non-animated matter. Its continuous complication has led to the emergence on Earth the animated matter. This state of matter is associated with the new attribute properties of matter, which is called Life. The further evolution of Life has led to the emergence of the next stage. One can say the third stage of Earth history led to emergence of new state of animated matter, which one call Consciousness life. This life is characterized by a cooperative form of existence. One know it as Social life. Transitions from stage to stage required many tens and even thousands of calendar years. However, given the long history of the Earth such transitions were sharp jumps.

The emergence of Life can be primarily treated as the emergence of new information structures. That is why one call such transitions as Creative Upholds. Each Uphold is the most strong form of information changes denoted as Information Revolution.

The less powerful Information revolutions can be called as: Coups, Revolts, Jumps, Shifts, Modifications, Revisions, Alterations or Strong increments. All of them are out of the area of discussion in this issue.
The specificity of Consciousness life is that as a result of Social life the most part of the changes in the surrounded World are produced by human activities. That is why the period after emerging of humankind is claimed as new epoch, named The Antropocene [54]. At this period the new Information uphold started. The seed of this Information revolution was the Individual-Collective thinking transition. Space diffusion of humankind is the evident result of this transition. Humanity is only in the initial stage of this transition. That is why no attempts to give any serious forecasting is possible. However, some preliminary considerations can be made. It is obvious that:

The process of Collective thinking is possible as a result of the symbiosis of human brain activity and technical specified devices and software created by man. Both as devices so software are based on materials, which are fully or partially prepared from non-animated matter.

Currently, there is not yet a system of collective thinking without the participation of elements from Non-animated matter. At the same time there have not yet created thinking devices created entirely from Non-animated matter. Accordingly, work in this area is ongoing in several directions. Let us enumerate the main of them.
The first direction of studies is tied with construction, operation, and improvement systems of cooperative work of many users, the widespread use of distributed computing, the creation of more powerful multi-purpose devices, new system of large external memory, and various searching systems. This is the most obvious and already widely used strategy. The prospects of its further development are quite obvious.

The second direction is tied with robotics. The works in this direction is now widely discussed in various sources. Despite the serious progress in this field there are a number of fundamental questions to which answers are not yet known. The most important question: Is it possible to build a thinking Autonomous robot? Actually here is hidden several independent problems. The first one: Is it possible to create artificial living matter? Any doubt of a positive answer is not available. The second problem: Is it possible to create artificial thinking matter? Answer probably yes. The third problem: Is it possible to build thinking robot or other device only from Non-animated matter? Despite high hopes any doubt of a positive answer is not available.

The third direction is build on creating complex systems based on combination of parts from animated and Non-animated matter. The one way in this area is to use any simple living creature as a part of complex system. Living creature can play the role of sensitive and control. The executive elements of the device are made on the basis of conventional industrial technologies. In the media there are reports of the first successful experiments in this direction. The second way based on the opposite approach. The successes of modern medicine indicate the perspectives of this approach. As an interesting example of such studies one can consider achievements in the area of Cochlear implants surgery [55]. In these operations the electronic chip to be implanted directly under the skin in the temporal area deaf person. There are other options for the use of embedded electronic chips in the human body, including healthy. In all these cases, the presence of electronics drastically increases the possibilities of man. Advances in the field of Virtual reality devices [56] are also a major progress in this direction. In these works the simulation of reality, created by software and hardware causes activity of human body.

In the future works in all three mentioned directions can be seen the possibility of creating a fundamentally new form of existence of matter. Humanity is just beginning to move in this direction. It is hardly possible to forecast which of these areas will be most promising. Likewise, it is impossible to say anything about possible new ways of development.
At present the main attention of researchers aimed at solving technical and technological problems on the ways of creating a new symbiosis Living matter-Technique. However, at this stage of the development of life on our planet became clear. Progress in this direction gives rise to many mental, ethical, and legal issues. The wording of the relevant issues is still very fuzzy. Therefore, the list of issues not yet classified and their significance has not been discussed. For this reason, the authors would lead the list. At the same time it is obvious that discussion is beyond the scope of Natural Sciences. Therefore, the most important conclusion of this article in our opinion is the desire to stimulate broader discussion, involving humanists and theologians.

Acknowledgments

Authors are grateful to professor Yu. Ershov (Moscow, Russia), Ph.D. V. Vyatkin (Ekaterinburg, Russia) and professor V. Fomenko (Ashdod, Israel) for useful discussions in the field of studied in this article problems. We also are grateful E. Romanenko (Saint-Petersburg, Russia) for constant support of our studies, and Mrs. O. Bouk and Ph.D O. Vorob’eva (Both Saint-Petersburg, Russia) who traditionally corrected our poor English and put in order some Figures in this issue.

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